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Functional capacity as a factor promoting the quality of life of the elderly

Objective: To evaluate the functional capacity of the elderly and their association with quality of life.

Method: A transversal, descriptive and analytical study was carried out by an individual and anonymous interview to 247 elderly people. A structured questionnaire was used, composed of sociodemographic characterization, Katz Index, Lawton & Brody Scale and MOS SF-36 – Medical Outcome Study Short Form – 36.

Results: It was found that 80.6% of the elderly were independent in the ADL and 79.8% were independent in the IADL. On the whole, they show a reasonable quality of life. The study of the correlation between the results of the perception of the quality of life and the levels of independence in the ADL and the IADL revealed that the more independent elderly people tend to perceive a better quality of life.

Conclusion: These results can contribute to the nurses developing intervention measures that promote the maintenance or recovery of the functional capacity of the elderly and, consequently, improve their quality of life.

Keywords: Aged; Quality of Life; Activities of Daily Living; Nursing; Aging.

 

from International Archives of Medicine
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Nursing technologies applied to families’ members: Integrative review

Background: When practing care, the nurse is able to apply all technologied possibilities in favor of the demands of the necessities of both patients and their relativies

Objective: To reveal the kinds of light technologies that have been developed by nurses to the families of patients who take care of them.

Method: Integrative literature review conducted by the search in the databases LILACS, MEDLINE, BDENF and Scopus, with the key words “technology”, “nursing”, “care” and “family”, published between 2005 and 2016 with a final selection of 16 items.

 Results: The categories developed by similar subject for analysis were: light technologies focused on family care; group technology as a strategy of care for families and educational technologies in nursing care context.

Conclusion: The nurse takes control of soft Technologies based on the development of care for Family members. But there are gaps to consolidate this assistance having the necessity of implementing public policies to ensure, in fact, these necessities.

Keywords: Technology. Caution. Nursing. Family

from International Archives of Medicine
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Protocol for the ostomized person in the trans-hospital and outpatient period: Integrative Review

Objective: To review the literature about the application of the evidence-based protocol concept for clinical assessment and interventions in nursing consultation to ostomized people.

Method: integrative review to increase the knowledge about stomata. A search was made in the databases BIREME, CINAHL, SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE and PUBMED with descriptors Ostomy OR Colostomy OR Colonic Pouches OR Surgical Stomata OR Colorectal Neoplasms OR Colorectal Cancer AND Protocols. It was selected 21 articles in the period of 2011-2015.

Results: The articles were systematized into five categories: quality of life, nursing assistance, protocols, complications and surgery. The categories are complementary and demonstrate a work carried out by a multiprofessional team.

Conclusion: the themes analysis made it possible to identify the need for expansion in research that addresses specific aspects such as teaching strategies in the levels of assistance in the trans-operative, postoperative and in the outpatient phase in nursing consultations.

from International Archives of Medicine
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Risk Assessment of Morbidity and Mortality in the Neonatal Transport

Neonatal transport is related to risk, which destabilizes the clinical condition of the newborn. This study aimed to present the assessment of risk of morbidity and mortality of the NB during the inter- and intra-hospital transport in accordance with the TRIPS and ERTIH-Neo scores. Cross-sectional study, descriptive and retrospective, held in the year 2014 in a maternity School, located in Rio Grande do Norte. The data were from the record of 57 transports performed with newborns in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The collected data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis through absolute and relative frequencies. The results of the TRIPS was possible in only 26% of the population, the majority of the scores were higher than 10. As for intra-hospital transport, there was a predominance of newborns who had obtained a score between 16 and 20. It was concluded that the realization of transport involved risks of neonatal morbidity and mortality.

from International Archives of Medicine
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Sound pressure and temperature centering of material and sterilization

Objective: Gauge the sound pressure and temperature levels emitted by the equipment of the drying and sterilization rooms of the Material and Sterilization Center and compare them with the current legislation.

Method: It is an experimental study with a quantitative approach, implemented in a school hospital in Joao Pessoa-PB. The data were obtained by a sound pressure meter and a thermal stress meter in September 2016.

Results and Discussion: The data evidenced high sound pressure levels, reaching a mean of 71.25 and 76.25 dB (A), in the drying and sterilization rooms respectively. The levels found do not exceed that recommended by NR15 (Regulatory Norm 15) which is 85dB(A), but NBR 10152/87 (Brazilian Norm 10152/87) indicates levels between 45 and 55 dB(A) for acoustic well-being. As for the temperature the measured mean ranged between 24.91 and 25.87 °C.

Conclusion: The levels of sound pressure and temperatures found in the environment can cause physiopsychological changes in the professionals that works in this services.

Keywords: Sound pressure; Temperature; Material and Sterilization Center

from International Archives of Medicine
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Morningness, Eveningness And Stress Perception In Physical Education Students

Objective:  to identify the stress levels and sleeping habits of students from the Physical Education college during the diurnal and nocturnal periods.

Method: this is an exploratory and descriptive study with 103 subjects. Data were collected through the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory and the Horne & Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Identification Questionnaire, and sociodemographic data.

Results: The stress indexes showed 53.40% of students without stress and 46.6% with stress. When comparing gender and stress using the chi-square test, one obtained (p=0.0411), indicating that women are more stressed than men. There were 61.1% of students classified with indifferent chronotype. Among the students, 80.4% from the diurnal period were not suitable for the chronotype, as well as 74.5% of the students from the nocturnal period were not either.

Conclusion: the majority of the students did not present the chronotype adequate for the study schedule and they presented stress, being more frequent in the female group.

from International Archives of Medicine
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Anastomosis Between Ulnar And Radial Nerve: A Cadaveric Study

Background: Brachial plexus variations are not rare. Variations in its terminal branches in the arm or forearm are frequently reported. Communications between branches of the brachial plexus are also not uncommon findings; however there is very little mention of communication between the radial and ulnar nerves in the literature. In view of this significance is performed this study with the purpose to determine any communications of radial nerve with neighboring peripheral nerves at level of axilla, arm, forearm.

Methods and Findings: A total of 17 cadavers with different age groups were used for this study. The upper limbs region (34 sides) were dissected carefully and photographed in the Morphology Laboratory at the University of Pamplona. Of the 34 upper limbs studied 33 showed normal morphology, the course and branching patterns of the nerves was normal (97.06%). In 1 specimen in the left forearm (2.94%), the radial and ulnar nerves were dissected and communicating branches were observed originating near the upper third in the posterior aspect of the forearm traveling from the ulnar to the radial nerve. The communicating branch was approximately 5.84 cm long and 1.73 mm in diameter. This anastomotic branch is an unusual anastomosis, no described in the literature between radial and ulnar nerve in forearm. Knowledge on the variant pattern of peripheral nerves is imperative not only for the surgeons, but also for the radiologists during image technology and MRI interpretations and for the anesthesiologists before administering anesthetic agents thus in diagnostic approaches.  

Conclusions: Lack of understanding of these variations can also confound the assessment of the severity of nerve injury as well as recovery. Awareness of such anatomical variations is very important in order to proper diagnosis of sensorimotor symptoms.

from International Archives of Medicine
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Muscular Variation In The Neck Region With Narrowing Of The Minor And Major Supraclavicular Fossa

Background: The sternocleidomastoideus muscle is the most prominent landmarks of the surface anatomy of the neck, separates the anterior part of the neck (anterior triangle) from the posterior part of the neck (posterior triangle). An accessory head of sternocleidomastoideus muscle may cause complications while trying to access vital neurovascular structures that are located in the minor and major supraclavicular fossa. The purpose of this study is to describe an anatomical variation of the sternocleidomastoideus muscle and clinical impact.

Methods and Findings: The anatomical variations described were found during routine dissection conducted in the laboratory of Morphology of the University of Pamplona in two male cadavers of 47 and 75 years respectively. Measurements were taken using a Vernier caliper. Topographic details of the variations were examined, recorded and photographed. The morphological variations in the number of heads (three and four) of origin of sternocleidomastoideus muscle was found in two male subjects in right and left neck, bilaterally.  The posterior cervical triangle was diminished. The bilateral narrowing of the minor and major supraclavicular fossa minimizing space needed for potential surgical access. The branching patterns of the spinal accessory nerve and arterial patterns were normal.

Conclusions: The Knowledge of the presence of additional heads of sternocleidomastoideus muscle it might cause difficulties in subclavian or external jugular vein catheterization, and in surgical interventions involving structures lying under the sternocleidomastoideus muscle. These variations must be kept in mind while approaching the region to avoid complications as the classical anatomical landmarks might be misinterpreted and confuse.

from International Archives of Medicine
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Influence Of Number Of Pregnancies In Peak Expiratory Flow And Body Composition Of Pregnant Women

Objectives: to describe and compare the mean values of the body composition and the peak expiratory flow (PEF) in primigravidae and multigravidae and, to determine its correlation with obstetric, anthropometric and body composition variables.

Method: it was performed a cross-sectional study of 120 healthy pregnant women at low risk, including 77 primigravidae and 43 multigravidae. The PEF was measured by spirometry and the body composition by multisegmental electrical impedance. The unpaired t test was used to compare the groups and the Pearson correlation test was used to determine the association between PEF and independent variables. A multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the dependent variable, the PEF and the independent variables.

Results: the body composition variables in multigravidae women showed higher values compared to the primigravidae, being statistically significant, except for fat mass. In primigravidae, the PEF was correlated significantly with maternal age and height. In multigravidae, the PEF was correlated with maternal age, height, pre-pregnancy and current weight, total body water, extracellular water, fat mass, lean mass and fat-free mass. A Multiple linear regression analysis showed that, in primigravidae, height and maternal age were associated with PEF, being responsible for explaining 14.5% of its variability. The current weight and the maternal age explained 42.3% of peak flow variability in multigravidae.

Conclusion: The PEF seemed to be influenced by the number of pregnancies. Changes were observed in relation to the body composition, as it was evidenced in correlation with the PEF in multigravidae women.

Keywords: Pregnancy. Spirometry. Weight gain.

from International Archives of Medicine
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Perception Of The Nurse In The Process Of Donation Of Organs And Fabrics For Transplantation

Objective: to know the nurses’ perception in the process of organ and tissue donation for transplants.

Methods: qualitative research with data collection performed through a semistructured interview with 16 nurses from a hospital. The data were submitted to Bardin content analysis.

Results: categories emerged after content analysis were as follows: Organ donation process: nurses’ experience; Nursing care for potential donors; Family approach; Main difficulties in the donation process.

Conclusion: the research demonstrated the real difficulties of the professionals during the donation process, such as lack of human resources, extensive protocols, and lack of awareness of the society to understand the donation process and the family approach.

Keywords: Transplantation of Organs; Obtaining Tissues and Organs; Nursing care.

 

 

from International Archives of Medicine
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