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Difficulties Found By Persons Living With Diabetes Mellitus: A Quantitative Analysis

Goal: to know the main difficulties faced by DM patients, characterizing the socioeconomic situation of the interviewees, identifying the type of care received by DM patients.

Method: It was a research of the descriptive exploratory type with quantitative approach that was carried out in the Basic Health Care of the city of Camutanga/PE. The population was formed by one hundred (100) diabetic patients enrolled at the FHS of said municipality, the sample will be formed by one hundred (100) of diabetics from UBS Mini Posto. The instrument for data collection was a form. The data collection took place in September and October 2016 after approval by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculdade de Enfermagem Nova Esperança (FACENE). CAAE: 59111616.1.0000.517

Results and Discussion: the data obtained in the research show that 65% of the study participants are between the age group over 65 years; 67% have primary education; 53% are retired; 62% reported receiving a minimum wage. About the data related to the issue 31% report that they have diabetes between 05 to 10 years; 79% prevail with type 2; 100% make use of medication; 43% use glibenclamide and metformin.

Conclusion: in view of the foregoing, it is concluded that this municipality presents several positive points in caring for the patients, but there are still gaps to provide adequate care to the carriers.             

Descriptors: Diabetes Mellitus. Primary Health Care. Nursing.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2px6yvl

Occurrence Of Osteomuscular Symptoms In Teachers Of A Higher Education Institution

The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms in teachers of a Higher Education Institution (HEI) located in João Pessoa – PB. This is a descriptive research with a quantitative approach, held at the Faculties of Nursing and Medicine (FACENE/FAMENE), in the city of João Pessoa-PB. The instrument for data collection consisted of a form with objective questions and divided into two parts, the first with data characterizing the sample and the second with the Nordic Musculoskeletal Symptoms Questionnaire. The data were analyzed quantitatively in percentage numbers and distributed in graphs. The results indicated that 30 teachers accepted to participate in the study with female predominance (67%). The regions most affected in the last 12 months were: dorsal (60%), lumbar (53%), neck, shoulders, wrists and hands (47%). Of the teachers interviewed, 20% reported having had difficulties in routine activities due to discomfort in the cervical region and 27% reported having sought medical or physiotherapeutic care due to neck pain, while 20% due to pain in the shoulders, dorsal, wrist/hands and hip/thighs. As for the occurrence of symptoms in the last week, the regions with the highest frequency of pain were shoulders (40%), neck and dorsal (27%). The significant percentage in the regions cited certifies that they are the regions most burdened in the professors and, therefore, deserve special attention in possible projects of occupational preventive action. This research evidences the necessity of new approaches and deepening on the subject, including the formulation of intervention strategies in the process of sickness of teachers.

Descriptors: Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders. University Teachers. Worker’s Health.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2qc30ec

Fungal contamination in white medical coats of dentistry professionals

Background: The white medical coats used by health professionals may serve as a source of infection in health services because it is a potential vehicle for transmission of microorganisms. There are several studies that warn of the inherent dangers in bacterial contamination in lab coats, but there are few reports of fungal contamination in this personal protection equipment.

Aims: The study aims to identify fungi in dental lab coats.

Method: Samples were collected from ten dentists from a dentistry-school clinic of a higher education institution of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using sterile swab, soaked in saline contained in a test tube. Each sample was inoculated on chloramphenicol-containing Saboroud Dextrose agar and incubated at room temperature for fungal growth. Phenotypic and biochemical methods were used to identify the colonies.

Results: Fungal growth was observed in all samples of the lab coats, and 19 isolates were counted. The genera Cladosporium and Aspergillus were the most frequent in this study. The results emphasize the role of fungi as contaminants in lab coats; and, as an effective means of transmission of pathogens in the community.

Conclusions: This study suggests a methodology for the proper washing and decontamination of the lab coat and advocates the need to implement more rigid norms in concern to the use of lab coats, as well as educational campaigns to guide dentists about the correct use of this Personal Protection Equipment (PPE).

Keywords: Individual Protection Equipment. Fungi. Cross infection.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2q41Xk0

The access of the homeless persons with tuberculosis to the health care: an integrative review

Introduction: The Tuberculosis (TB) keeps being a big public health problem in the world, having the poverty, the bad life condition, the bad income distribution, the social iniquity and the disability on the health system as a substrate to its maintenance.

Objective: To identify the scientific knowledge produced under the access to the health service of the homeless person sick by TB.

Method: Integrative literature review conducted from April to June, 2016, having as inclusion criteria: publications written in Portuguese, English or Spanish, published from 1990 to 2015, indexed on the data basis: LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE and Web of Science and portals Virtual Health Library (VHL) and MEDLINE/PubMed, that had the text completely available online. As searching strategy was used the Boolean operator AND, with the descriptors: Tuberculosis, health services accessibility; homeless persons. To obtain the information that answered the research guideline question was elaborated a form that contemplated the following items: identification, theme, descriptors or key-words, abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, conclusions and references. The search resulted in 51 articles that, observed with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulted in 10 complete articles. The data analyzes was made in qualitative terms, summarized in three categories: I) Specific characteristics of the homeless people access to the health services to tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment; II) Access difficulty to the health care: factors related to homeless people and factors related to health services; III) Strategies to overcome the access difficulties of the homeless person (HLP)  to the health care.

Results: pointed that the homeless people have a higher risk to get sick by TB, presenting TB incidence rate 10 to 20 times higher than the general population. Many obstacles that limited those people access to the health services were identified. Many times they presented difficulty to identify the appropriated place to search for assistance and not always this place had the opened doors to this social group. Another important finding treats about the low adhesion to the TB treatment, because treating about the search for health care, the homeless people are less inclined to search the health services, seen that living on the street implies in a daily fight for survival. To those people, the sickness treatment has a lower priority than the meal obtaining, the searching for shelter, or the search for a job.

Discussion: It was observed that by the fact to be exposed to many risk factors, such as: alcoholism, chemical dependence, environmental exposition, inadequate sleeping accommodations, crowed shelters, stress, psycho disturbs, poverty, HIV infection, weak nutrition, affected immunity through the pre-existent conditions, lack of access to health services, cognitive affection and the adverse effects to the health by the lack of home, the homeless people have high risk to get sick and the high TB mortality rate if compared to the general population. Thus it is evident the serious problem that this disease represents to this specific group, justifying urgently the necessity of specific actions to the TB control in this population. The most important element during the TB elimination will be a significant decreasing of the agglomerations, on the poverty and the barriers to the health care. To increase the access to the health care is essential on the homeless population TB control. It is necessary to highlight that when health services that attends their necessity are provided, the homeless individuals will access to the health care at the same rhythm as the general population.

Conclusion: It is necessary that the health actions break the strictly technical caring barriers and include the psychosocial and educative perspective in all the health care process to homeless people with different conformations due to the individuals’ singularities and their scenarios. Thus, the search by the more integral care and, therefore, more efficient possible, it is wait that be included on the health team daily work, routines and process to a systematic search for the health necessities, and developed abilities to recognize the adequacy of the offers to the specific context, in which is given the meeting from the individual and the team.

Keywords: Tuberculosis; health services accessibility; homeless persons.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2pfUjQH

School and community relationship in the perspective of Health Promotion

Goals: The aim of this study was to analyze the scientific production on the relationship between school and community in the perspective of Health Promotion.

Method: Integrative review. The search was guided by question: How has the relationship between school and community occurred in Health Promotion?

Results: Nine studies were selected in Portuguese, Spanish and English, published from April 2006 to April 2016. Most of the rescued studies showed that the type of relationship between school and community has based on actions that are not linked to the principles of Health Promotion, mostly focused on the individual, without considering collective issues, risk factors that cause illness, disconnected from the social context. Few studies present advances in Health Promotion with a critical-citizen perspective and experiences with the potential for the necessary establishment of the school and community relation.

Conclusion: Although the relationship between school and community in the perspective of Health Promotion presents as elementary and not deepened, the successful experiences show good prospects of overcoming. It is necessary to move forward and bring the relationship between school and community in a synergetic movement in favor of Health Promotion.

Descriptors: Health promotion; School; Community.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2pR9jo8

Immediate and Late Complications of Temporary and Permanent Hemodialysis Catheters

This study aimed to identify the immediate and late complications of temporary and permanent catheters for hemodialysis in a nephrology service. This is an exploratory-descriptive study with quantitative approach, performed in a Nephrology center that is reference in the State and located in Recife/Pernambuco. The sutdy was conducted in the period from April to September 2015 using an instrument developed by the authors, consisting of socio-demographic and clinical data. The study included 40 patients who had a total of 57 complications. The most frequent immediate complication was hematoma (33.4%) and the most common late complication was decreased blood flow (46.1%). Results led to conclude that the nursing staff, in particular, should be alert to the occurrence of complications. For this, it is suggested that training and continuing education be developed as a way to improve the performance of the nursing staff before any sort of problem related to catheters for hemodialysis.

Key words: Complications; Catheters; Renal dialysis; Nephrology.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2poZPn0

Prevalence of Arbovirus Infections among Pregnant Women at a Maternity Hospital School

Objective: Survey the prevalence of arbovirus infections among pregnant women provided with care at a maternity hospital school in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, and quantitative study, carried out with data collected from the notification forms filled in during obstetric screening between August 2015 and July 2016.

Results: Positive serology was found for arboviruses in 40.2% of the 103 suspected cases. Serology was not performed or it showed inconclusive results in 59.8% of the cases. Dengue fever occurred in 44% of the cases, chikungunya in 34%, and zika fever in 22%. Infections were more frequent among pregnant women over 20 years old, with low income and low schooling levels, living in Recife (48.5%) and Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil (24.3%). The most frequently mentioned symptoms were arthralgia (94%), exanthema (82%), and fever (78%). Infections occurred within the first trimester of pregnancy (54.5%), 63.3% of the pregnant women had to be hospitalized, and 45.4% of them did not undergo morphological ultrasonography. Most babies were born full-term and they had adequate weight. The prevalence of microcephaly was 9.7% when considering cases of arbovirose and 62.5% when considering specific cases of zika fever.

Conclusion: The prevalence and repercussions of arboviruses justify the consolidation of actions to fight Aedes aegypti, as well as the effective deployment of clinical protocols and recommendations aimed at the mother and child care.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2pR227G

An Epidemiological Profile of Accidental Tetanus Cases in a Referral Hospital, 2007-2013

Objective: to describe the epidemiological profile of accidental tetanus cases in a referral hospital in the State of Pernambuco, during 2007-2013.

Method: this is a descriptive, retrospective, quantitative study based on secondary data.

Results: there were 126 cases confirmed. Most of them (88.9%) were male and from the urban area (77%). The most frequent professions were agricultural workers in general and masons (31.7%), with age group between 35-49 years old (39.7%). Drilling was the most evident injury (48.4%). The lower limbs were the most affected region (65.1%), and the predominant clinical sign was trismus (90.5%). The lethality rate was 19.0%, and the mean length of hospital stay was 49.4 days.

Conclusions: Accidental tetanus is an immune- preventable disease, the vaccine is highly immunologically effective. However, it remains a public health problem in Pernambuco, presenting high lethality and a long time in the service. 

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2poZOPY

Timed Up And Go Risk Predictor Of Falls In Elderly People Residing In The Community?

Objective: evaluate the risk of falls of elderly people residing in a community in northeastern Brazil using the “Timed up and go”.

Method: descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, performed with elderly people residing in a community. The collected data related to the sociodemographic and economic characteristics of episodes of falls in the last two years, regular practice of physical exercise and complaint of pain at the time of the interview; and, at last, the application of the “Timed Up and Go” test.

Result: Most of the elderly were classified as free and independent and independent. There is a direct relationship between advanced age and increased time to perform the test. Conclusion: the “Timed Up and Go” test was not effective in predicting risk of falls alone and should associate with other indicators.

Descriptors: Elderly people; Accidents by fall; Walking; Postural balance.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2pR6Vxv

Nurses Records in Medical Records of a School Hospital

Objective: Describe the characteristics of the evolution of nurses in the medical records of patients admitted to a school hospital in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Brazil.

Methods: This is a descriptive, exploratory and documental, embodied in a quantitative approach. The source of study data were the records of patients of the Pediatric Clinic of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (IPD), who were in the Statistical and Medical Archive Service (SMAS), in a time frame from April to October 2015. The analysis the data was performed, from the descriptive statistics, using a statistical software.

Results: Through the data collected, two characteristics were observed in the records: the general aspects and the focus of care. In general aspects, the developments were characterized as being absent from erasures, use of correctives, grammatical errors, non-standard abbreviations and generic terms. They proved to be legible and clear, using scientific terminology, the date and time stamp. However, it was found that there are many blanks. As the focus of care, the records contemplated the general condition, level of consciousness, respiratory pattern and eliminations.

Conclusions: Based on the foregoing, the concreteness of this study shows us that nurses need to be aware in order to provide a more qualified registration and, above all, standardized, ensuring continuity of care and promoting the evaluation of the implemented care.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2ppdZEP