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Leprosy: The Present Of A Disease From The Past

Introduction: Leprosy is one of the oldest and most stigmatizing diseases to affect mankind and is still considered a public health problem in many developing countries. 

Objective: To analyze how the social representations of leprosy patients are structured. 

Method: The purpose of this study was to analyze how the social consequences of leprosy affect people carrying the disease. A multi-method approach was used, based on the Theory of Social Representations. A total of 100 subjects participated in this study (50 males and 50 females). Data were analyzed using the following software: SPSS (to assess social, economic, and clinical aspects, EVOC, SIMI, and AVRIL (to integrate the structure of social consequences). 

Results: The central core for women was “family”. In the similitude test, this word was associated with “exclusion”. For men, the central core was composed of “family”, “work”, and “treatment”. 

Conclusions: The healthcare model must strive to take into account the day-to-day concerns of leprosy patients, with a view towards greater consideration of gender differences and the development of a more humanized care system based on full assistance in order to control this disease.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2vV3cSQ

Nursing Practices In Intravenous Therapy In Newborns: An Integrative Review

Objective: to identify the evidence on nursing practices in intravenous therapy in newborns.

Method: integrative review in the PubMed, Scopus and SciELO databases. A total of 150 articles were selected, and after thorough reading, eight studies remained.

Results: Most of the studies were descriptive and cross-sectional (50%), using peripheral venous catheter (62.5%). The years varied between 2006 and 2014. Brazilian studies corresponded to 37.5%.

Conclusion: The main nursing practices were: use of saline solution for catheter clearing; use of larger caliber catheters; use of splints to support the limbs; adequate positioning of the upper limb during radiography for correct confirmation of the positioning of the tip of the peripherally inserted central catheter; management of pain with pharmacological and non-pharmacological actions. Descriptors: Nursing care; Newborn; Peripheral catheterization; Vascular access devices; Evidence-Based Clinical Practice.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2uAZ8qu

Nursing Care In The Hemodialysis Room: Integrative Review

Objectives: To identify in the literature the nursing care in the hemodialysis room, as well as to evaluate the patient needs in the hemodialysis treatment.

Method: Bibliographic study of descriptive origin with exploratory investigation. The search was carried out at the bases: Scielo, Bireme and Google academic, from 2010 to 2016, using the descriptors: nursing, care, hemodialysis.

Results: Forty-eight articles were found and the final sample comprised 16. It was noticed that the nursing care in the hemodialysis room is very important for the safety and protection of the patients, who during the session should be observed, due to the risks that it offers. It is understood that the patient’s need in hemodialytic treatment is to undergo various restrictions and be accompanied by a multidisciplinary team always aiming at the comfort and safety of the patient.

Conclusion: Therefore the changes that exist in the life of the chronic renal patient are several, such as fear of death, feel excluded from living with friends, gain weight because the body can not excrete toxins and liquids, and are indefinitely imprisoned to the dialysis machine.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2uWI6FZ

Leprosy In Subjects Under 15 Years: Epidemiological Analysis In Brazil

This article analyzes the epidemiological profile of leprosy in the age group from 0 to 14 years, in the municipalities that constitute the VI Brazilian Regional Health Management Office (GERES) in the state of Pernambuco, within the period from 2005 to 2014. This is a study with an exploratory and retrospective design and use of the Brazilian National Disease Notification System (SINAN). In the decade under analysis, 613 cases of leprosy were registered – 11.2% involving subjects under 15 years of age. There is a downward tendency since 2005, with a marked increase in the year 2012 and a new decrease since 2013. The incidence of cases had a pattern compatible with the high magnitude of this disease in the region, observed in 92.3% of the municipalities analyzed. It is concluded that leprosy persists as a serious public health issue in Brazil. In Pernambuco, control measures have been adopted, such as the SANAR Program (for neglected diseases) and action plans in the municipalities with higher incidence of this pathology.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2tY62V0

Violence In Immigrants: Effects On Health, Perception Of Discrimination And Loneliness

The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of violence against Brazilian immigrant women since their arrival in Portugal and to know the consequences of this violence on the women’s experience, specifically on health, perception of discrimination and loneliness. Conducted in the first half of 2016, with 682 women over 18 years of age living in Portugal for more than three months. Two types of collection were instituted: online, through the Limasurvey Platform, and in person, at the Consulate General of Brazil in Porto and Lisbon and in the Mais Association, applying the Discrimination Perceptions, Loneliness Scales (ULS-6) and Mental Health Problems. The results suggest that Brazilian women who have been targets of violence in Portugal have a worse perception of their health, a higher perception of discrimination, a higher level of solitude and more mental problems, which indicates that this group of immigrants has some vulnerabilities in the country, since violence has a harmful effect on physical and mental health. It is believed to be crucial to create a policy that aims at transforming actions aimed at strengthening the citizen and collective consciousness of these immigrant women

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2gUEheB

The Impact Of Malocclusion On Quality Of Life And Life Satisfaction

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the type of malocclusion affects the perception of quality and satisfaction with people’s lives.

Material and Methods: Three questionnaires were applied: the first one assessed the social and economic factors and the diagnosis of malocclusion through Angle´s classification, the second was the OHIP-14, and the third was the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS).

Results: This study involved 444 patients aged 18 to 72 years. According to the classification of malocclusion 48.65% was Class I, 22.75% was Class II division 1, 12.16% was Class II division 2 and Class III 16.44%. The malocclusion did not have negative impact on the level of satisfaction with life, but in all dimensions analyzed by OHIP-14, malocclusion had negative impact on quality of life and was statistically significant. The most severe malocclusions such as Class II and Class III represent a more negative impact when compared to Class I malocclusion. Moreover, for the dimensions assessed by the OHIP-14, physical pain and psychological discomfort were those who showed a greater negative impact on quality of life.

Conclusions: Malocclusions do not interfere with the judgment of the level of satisfaction with life, but they produce a negative impact on quality of life.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2uI3OwI

The Irritating Effects Of Exposure To Formaldehyde In User Students Of The Human Anatomy Laboratory

Formaldehyde (FA) is commonly used in cadaver fixation for years. FA vapors are released during the dissection process and macroscopic study of preserved anatomical pieces, raising their concentration in the Anatomy laboratory, causing greater exposure for students and teachers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate toxic reactions in 37 students, through a questionnaire, produced by exposure to FA used for preservation of cadaveric material used in Anatomy, Morphofunctional Department, Faculdades Integradas de Patos (FIP), Brazil. Of the 37 interviewees, 26 (70.3%) were affected by the unpleasant and irritating smell of FA, 10 (27%) had no problems, and 1 (2.7%) did not tolerate an irritation produced by FA, ​​not participating in the laboratory practical classes. Exposure to FA was followed by several symptoms: excessive lacrimation (54%), itchy eyes (48.5%), redness of the eyes (40.6%), coryza or congested nose (35.2%) and respiratory distress (29.7%), with persistent symptoms during the permanence in the laboratory for 32.5% of the students. All students wear a lab coat for individual protection. However, only 8% used mascara and did not wear glasses, increasing the risk of contamination. Medical schools should encourage the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for the manipulation of FA, ensuring the protection of students and teachers in the Anatomy laboratory. Besides finding alternatives for the replacement of FA in the conservation of corpses.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2tlQNFA

Comparing the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Schoolchildren: Cross-sectional Study

Title: Comparing the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome in schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

Introduction: The Metabolic Syndrome has been highlighted by being the result of the meeting of several cardiovascular risk factors. However, there is still no consensus for the determination of MS in children and adolescents, since the diagnostic criteria and its cut-off points considered at risk are not established and, depending on the criteria used, the prevalence of MS found in the literature may vary.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome in adolescents in the private school system.

Method: This is a cross-sectional study of 325 adolescents from private schools in the urban area of a city in northeastern Brazil. The analysis was performed through the descriptive statistics, and the verification of the agreement between the results was given by the calculation of the Kappa index. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee (opinion 352.372).

Results: In only 7 adolescents, the diagnosis was like the three definitions of metabolic syndrome. Regarding the number of components of metabolic syndrome, a large percentage of adolescents presented 02 or more altered parameters. Regarding the comparison of the diagnostic criteria, the criteria established by De Ferranti presented a higher positive proportion for the syndrome.

Conclusion: There were differences between the proportions obtained through the three diagnostic criteria, which may impair the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2uIXaqX

Profile of Patients with Penile Neoplasms Who Have Undergone Penectomy

Introduction: Penile cancer accounts for 10% to 20% of the male urogenital tumors. In Brazil, the North and Northeast regions have the highest rates.

Objective: Analytical, retrospective, and cross-sectional study addressing the profile of individuals with penile neoplasms who have undergone penectomy in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Methods: The population of this study consisted of 305 men who underwent penectomy at the Pernambuco State Cancer Hospital (HCP), from 2000 to 2009. There was prevalence of elderly, low-schooling and low-income men, as well as individuals from municipalities outside the Metropolitan Region of Recife.

Results: Poor hygiene, smoking, and phimosis were the main risk factors identified. Patients showed epidermoid carcinoma (type I) and metastasis. The early signs and symptoms were tumor and painful ulcer.

Conclusion: Most of the individuals have undergone partial penectomy.

Keywords: Penile Neoplasms; Epidemiology; Hygiene; Phimosis; Brazil.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2tmMxd7

Predisposing Factors For Incidence Of Congenital Syphilis

The study aims to synthesize the knowledge produced in articles about the predisposing factors for the incidence of Congenital Syphilis. An integrative review was conducted in May and June 2014. Three databases were consulted and all publications available at the pre-established time frame were collected. The descriptors congenital syphilis, incidence and causality in Portuguese, English and Spanish were used, resulting in 1723 articles, of which 23 were selected. The results show deficiency in prenatal care; poor diagnosis; inadequante care of the disease; unequal socioeconomic conditions; difficult access to health services; and poor guidelines. The increasing number of new cases of congenital syphilis is due to several factors that can be prevented through quality prenatal care. Therefore, care actions during pregnancy and puerperium need to be redirected so that they are based on early diagnosis, immediate treatment of the couple and health education.

from International Archives of Medicine
http://ift.tt/2u558r9