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International Archives of Medicine
Working Groups
Nursing Professionals And Occupational Accidents

The current study has the objective to identify main work accidents that occurs with nursing workers. This is an integrative literature review that enabled to include scientific articles indexed in the databases of Virtual Library in Health (BVS). Searches were made from october to november 2016, using the descriptors: “work accidents”, “nursing professionals”, separated between themselves by the boolean operator AND.

The following criteria were adopted: fully available articles, in portuguese language, published in the last five years. Articles that presented some duplicity and didn’t meet the proposed study objectives were excluded.

After searches, ten scientific productions about the subject were selected. Results indicate the occurrence of accidents between nursing professionals and the main factors were related with sharp object handling, non-utilization of IPEs, excessive workload and needle resurfacing.

It is concluded that strategies are required to minimize these occurrences, as the adoption of standard precautionary measures, the adequacy of staff numbers and better work conditions to this professional category. Besides that, the need of new researches about this subject are emphasized.

from International Archives of Medicine

Nursing Professional’s Working Load Given To The Elderly At The Intensive Unit Care

The natural aging process accelerate the appearance and the installation of diseases and symptoms characteristic of the age in which the physical and cognitive aspects are compromised progressively. Increasing the necessity of specialized cares and intensive accompaniment. This study aimed to evaluate through the Nursing Activities Score appliance, the nursing team’s working load, destined to elderly people assisted at intensive unit care and subsidize the personal sizing according to what advocate the legislation. It is about a descriptive and documental study of quantitative approach. It was used as data basis 50 patient records of elderly users admitted at a public intensive unit care from João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. It was determined that 56% (28) of the elderly in his first hospitalization day at the Intensive Unit Care, required a nursing high working load while 44% (42) a nursing low working load.

Through the sum of the Nursing Activities Score average score, we can achieve the total of hours at the nursing assistance necessaries to the elderly patient care during the hospitalization. The average scores obtained by the total score, corresponded to 59.2 ± 7.8, transforming in hours according to the conducted calculus, correspond to 14.47 hours of nursing assistance turned to the elderly people. It is waited that the results can contribute to quantify the expended assistance time and also evidence the real necessity of the people to ensure safe and quality assistance practices to the elderly people. 

Descriptors: Workload. Nursing. Aged. Intensive Care Units.

from International Archives of Medicine

Performance Of Nurses In Radiotherapy Services

Objective: This study aimed to know the performance of nurses in radiotherapy services.

Methods and Results: It is a cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study with a quantitative approach, developed from June to July 2015. The study sample was composed of eight nurses. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire, analyzed through descriptive statistics. It was verified that nurses are not only restricted to care, buy they work in the supervision of the nursing team, monitor the work process, elaborate the action plan, select materials and equipment, schedule the consultations. In addition, it was possible to observe the importance of the nursing consultation for the individualization of the care and effectiveness of the treatment for the patient.

Conclusion: It is observed that for a good progress of the radiotherapy service, there is a need for a trained nursing team with conditions to deal with the complexity and requirements that this modality of treatment demands.

Keywords: Neoplasms; Radiotherapy; Nursing; Nursing Care.

from International Archives of Medicine

General anesthetics in children: neurotoxic or neuroprotective?

Introduction: general anesthetics are involved in neuroprotection in adults after ischemic events and cognitive impairment, thus, they also may be associated with learning disorders in children exposed to them before three years of age.

Objective: Describe about the neurotoxic effects of general anesthetics in experimental animals and children.

Method: This is a systematic review, performed from search in databases and on PubMed using the keywords “neurotoxicity” and “general anesthetics,” and “general anesthetics,” “neurotoxicity”, “children”, “young child “and” pediatric “.

Results: The search resulted in 185 articles. Out of these, 78 met our inclusion criteria. We found that there was a significant evidence of neurotoxicity induced by general anesthetics in experimental animals that were just born, resulting in late and permanent cognitive deficits. This effect was associated with multiple exposures, exposure length of time and combination of drugs. However, some studies found cognitive impairment after a single exposure to anesthetic.

Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence to state that general anesthetics are neurotoxic and have the potential to trigger learning and behavior disabilities in children. However, we suggest caution in indicating surgery in children under three years old, analyzing risk-benefit and inserting the family in the decision process.

from International Archives of Medicine

Trachoma as cause of blindness: literature review

This is a literature review that used as database articles in websites like Bireme, SciELO, LILACS, Journals and Webartigos. Development: Trachoma is an ocular inflammatory disease, whose etiological agent is Chlamydia trachomatis, which affects the conjunctiva and cornea causing a chronic relapsing keratoconjunctivitis, in the course of time may lead to the formation of entropion, trichiasis and possible blindness. Its transmission occurs in the home environment, directly or indirectly. The occurrence of trachoma is mostly where hygiene and lifestyle habits are precarious. According to the World Health Organization, there are six million people currently infected. Conclusion: The study shows the importance of knowledge about trachoma, so that Brazil is able to achieve the global goal of eliminating the disease by 2020.

from International Archives of Medicine

Is Music Effective For Pain Relief In Burn Victims?

Objective: to describe the effect of music on pain of burn victims during the dressing change.

Methods: applied, descriptive, exploratory and quantitative research held in a Burn Treatment Unit from October 2015 to April 2016. The study included 16 burn victims who were divided in three groups: A: patients heard music before dressing; B: patients hear music during dressing; C: patients did not hear music.

Results: the average age was 31.8 years (± 14.1) and most of the subjects were male. Lower limbs and trunk were the most affected parts of the body, especially with second-degree burns and which affected an average of 15.8% (± 11.5) of the body surface. There was a predominance of gospel music (50.0%). The music reduced the average heart rate and oxygen saturation, but did not change ventilatory rate. There was a decrease in the average of pain intensity in groups GB (p = 0.0505 and GC (p = 0.0055). During the dressing, the burning was unanimous characteristic for all subjects, in the same manner as verbal reports was the form of manifestation.

Conclusion: music proved to be a simple and effective resource in controlling pain in burn victims.

Keywords: Burns; Music; Pain.

from International Archives of Medicine

Profile Of Burn Victims Attended By An Emergency Unit

Objectives: to identify the sociodemographic and health profile of burn victims, knowing the characteristics of the events and detecting the major analgesics prescribed in the emergency department.

Methods: descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study with 16 burn victims treated at a Burn Treatment Unit from October 2015 to May 2016.

Results: the average age of participants was 31.8 years (± 14.1). Mostly, the subjects were male (62.5%), single (43.8%), brown (68.8%), economically active (75.0%) and coming from Aracaju and its surroundings (62.5%). Injuries from burns were mostly of second degree (93.8%) and reached the lower limbs (68.8%). The average burned body surface was 15.8% (± 11.5). The circumstances surrounding burns occurred mainly at home (50.0%), on Sundays (25.0%) and in the shifts morning (37.5%) and night (37.5%). The main etiological agent was alcohol (31.3%). All patients received analgesia in the emergency department, but the minority had pain documented (18.8%). The physician was the only professional who reported pain in their records, but did incompletely (18.8%).

Conclusion: due to the negative effects of burns, it is crucial to adopt educational and preventive measures to change the current scenario of epidemiology of such trauma.

Keywords: Burns; Epidemiology; Analgesia; Emergency.

from International Archives of Medicine

Exclusive Breastfeeding: Guidance In The Process Of Communication Between Nursing Staff And Recent Mothers

Objective: To identify the guidelines offered and the respective communication techniques used by Nursing staff for the practice of exclusive breastfeeding, during the establishment of the communication with recent mothers.

Method: Descriptive study with a qualitative approach, between March and December 2012, in a reference Hospital of Fortaleza, with eleven Nursing professionals.

Results: Most Nursing professionals of the study focused their guidelines on the importance of maintaining the practice of exclusive breastfeeding up to the first six months of the child’s life, highlighting the benefits for the baby, mom and the family, and in the clinical management of breastfeeding.

Conclusions: By using the techniques of communication, Nursing professionals have demonstrated to be in tune with recent mothers when promoting their participation in the breastfeeding process, instructing them and offering encouragement. However, the social and emotional aspects that permeate the practice of breastfeeding were not mentioned by the Nursing staff.

from International Archives of Medicine

Educational Contributions Of The Nurse In The Prevention Of Sepsis In The Unit Of Intensive Therapy: Integrative Review

Sepsis is defined as a syndrome of inflammatory response, motivated by an aggressive agent, associated with systemic infection, the early approach of the infectious agent, both in the direction of diagnosis and in the control of infectious focus, are fundamental for the good evolution of the patient. This pathology has been considered a global health problem, affecting a large number of people and causing high rates of morbidity and mortality.

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate how nurses contribute in an educational way in the prevention of complications caused by sepsis in an intensive care unit.

METHOD: The research was carried out through an electronic search of scientific papers published in the databases LILACS, SCIELO and PUBMED, portal of the virtual library in health. Other materials were located in scientific journals available on university websites and articles related to the subject. The initial evaluation of the material occurred through the reading of the abstracts, in order to select those that met the objectives of the study, with this, 37 articles were selected. In carrying out the research it was possible to verify that the recognition of sepsis by nursing professionals is mainly identified through the changes in the signs and symptoms that are observed through the provision of care to these critical patients.

RESULTS: It has been shown that even with all the advances in the production of knowledge about the pathophysiology and the treatment of sepsis, it is still possible to find several difficulties for the proper handling in the diagnosis and in the ideal treatment for each particular case.

CONCLUSION: The professional nurse should always be updating and seeking new knowledge for a fast, safe and effective action, in conjunction with the entire health team to promote quality and resolutive care for the patient, especially those affected by sepsis.

from International Archives of Medicine

Intra-arterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis

Objective: To assess the potential benefit of treating patients with acute ischemic stroke using intra-arterial methods.

Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials that compared standard therapy with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IVtPA) for thrombolysis to intra-arterial therapies in patients with acute stroke was performed. All studies reported were analyzed as one group and studies documenting patients with large vessel obstruction were analyzed as a second group. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and the odds ratio (OR) of the dichotomized outcomes of Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of these trials was calculated.

Results: Nine trials were identified with 2,711 patients treated. Meta-analysis of all studies, with and without large vessel obstruction documented, showed a significant benefit with intra-arterial therapy (SMD: 0.22 + 0.041; P=0.003). The dichotomized outcomes of mRS of these trials showed significant improvement (OR: 1.66 -2.43 in four of the five treatment arm groups examined). Meta-analysis of all publications with large vessel obstruction documented as an entry criteria showed a greater significant benefit with intra-arterial therapy (SMD: 0.35 + 0.05; P<0.001). The dichotomized outcomes of mRS of these trials showed significant improvement (OR: 1.36 -2.38 in all five treatment arm groups examined). Some heterogeneity was observed between studies.

Conclusion: Treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke was associated with improved outcomes as measured by mRS. Patient selection, standard treatment, and study treatment factors contributed to the statistical evaluation of inter study heterogeneity and may have contributed to different study outcomes.

from International Archives of Medicine