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International Archives of Medicine
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Nursing In The Pre And Postoperative Of Bariatric Surgery

Objective: To describe the studies disseminated in online journals about the nursing care in the pre- and post-operative bariatric surgery.

Method: This is an integrative review of literature, a method that aims to gather and synthesize results of research about a topic. We conducted a survey of 405 articles, which, after passing by the inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulted in 8 scientific productions for analysis.

Results: The selected publications were divided into two thematic categories: Nursing care for the patient undergoing bariatric surgery and systematization of nursing care for patients under bariatric surgery.

Conclusion: The analysis of these studies evidences the importance of the nurse as an active member of the health team and essential in the whole process of bariatric surgery that the patient undergoes. It was also seen that the systematization of nursing care is determinant for a good recovery of these patients.

Descriptors: Bariatric Surgery; Nursing Care; Obesity; Morbid Obesity.

from International Archives of Medicine

Congenital malformations in neonates: analysis of morbidity and associated factors

Objective: To evaluate the neonatal morbidity due to congenital malformations in the city of Petrolina-PE, from 2008 to 2013.

Methods: A descriptive study with data from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc). The analyzes were carried out through frequency distribution and measures of central tendency and dispersion. The associations were tested by the Pearson and Kruskal Wallis chi-square tests. Significance was set at 5% and 95% confidence.

Results: 436 cases of congenital malformations were recorded in the study period, with 2011 being the highest occurrence year. The mothers of the newborns were young (25.2 years old), single, upper level of education and household. In general multiparous, with single gestation, vaginal delivery and performed up to six prenatal visits. The newborns were males, at 39 weeks or more of gestation and with normal weight (> = 2500g). The malformations of the musculoskeletal system were the most frequent followed by the genitourinary system. Congenital malformations were especially associated with neonatal characteristics such as gender and weight. In all causes the mean weight was greater than 2500g (p <0.05). The causes of malformation of greater occurrence in both sexes were osteomuscular (p <0.05). The aspects of the mother did not present significant differences in the present study (p> 0.05).

Conclusion: The present study evidenced relevant aspects in the occurrence of morbidities due to congenital malformations, directing to a greater attention the occurrence of these diseases especially in relation to the newborn.

from International Archives of Medicine

Clinical and Hematological Evaluation of Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia Before and After Four Years of Using Hydroxyurea

Objective: Evaluating clinical and hematological-clinical parameters of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) before and after four years of using hydroxyurea (HU). 

Method: A retrospective cohort study implementing a quantitative, descriptive and analytical approach developed in two public teaching hospitals located in the Central-West region of Brazil, from November 2010 to October 2011. Data collection was performed through medical records of 32 patients with SCA to assess clinical and hematological parameters before and after HU treatment. The study was approved by the UFMS Ethics Committee under protocol number 1890/2010.

Results: All of the 32 patients were homozygous with a mean age in the prescription of hydroxyurea of 19.72±7.58 years, an initial dose of 15.59±4.27 mg/kg/day, and 22.48±5.35 mg/kg/day in the fourth year of treatment. Regarding the use of HU, average values of some hematological parameters presented a significant difference in the fourth year compared to the mean values prior to HU use, such as fetal hemoglobin (14.49±7.52%), red blood cells (2.54±0.38×1012/L), hematocrit (25.30±4.03%) and hemoglobin (9.22±3.34g/dL). 

Conclusion: Treatment with hydroxyurea showed a significant increase in fetal hemoglobin levels, increased hemoglobin, hematocrit and average corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with reduced episodes of pain, infection and acute chest syndrome in such a way as to reaffirm its efficiency in treating these patients.

Keywords: Hemoglobin; Sickle Cell Anemia; Hydroxyurea.

from International Archives of Medicine

Quality Of General Life In The Medicine Course Students

Objective: To evaluate the general quality of life in medical students.

Method: This is a cross-sectional observational study of 320 students from the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, located in Campo Grande, Brazil, who answered the WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment instrument.

Results: The medical students evaluated having a good general quality of life and good satisfaction with their health. According to the domains, the psychological domain was smaller than the social relationships and environment domains. The students had a difference in the values of the WHOQOL-BREF scores only between the psychological and the environment domains and lower values in the men, in the physical and psychological domains. During the years of the course, there was a difference between the domains only for the 3rd grade of the course, with lower scores for the psychological domain. In each domain, the values of the WHOQOL-BREF scores were higher in the second grade compared to the 5th grade in the social relationships domain, and in the environmental domain. The 1st grade had lower values than the 6th grade.

Conclusion: Medical students have a positive characterization of the quality of life, although it is less in the psychological domain, by the frequency of negative feelings not enjoying life or concentrating in a satisfactory way. Female students are more fragile in the psychological and physical domain than male students.

Keywords: Quality of life; Medical students; Medical Education.

from International Archives of Medicine

Risk behavior on HIV transmission in independent elderly people

Objective:  The objective was to know the risk behavior of independent elderly people in DST / HIV / AIDS prevention.

Method: Exploratory study with quantitative data approach. Sample was composed of 24 independent elderly people without diagnosis. An elaborate semi-structured interview script was used. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, using chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: We found 87% female, age group between 60-69 years (62%) and marital status widow (43%).Of the sample, 87% reported knowing the means of transmission of the virus, 79% reported not using condoms and all had some sexual intercourse without the use of condoms.The analysis between the dependent variable “knows how to transmit HIV” and independent “condom use” showed statistical significance (p = 0.014).

Conclusion: It can be inferred that there was a high risk behavior for HIV / AIDS virus acquisition in this sample, since they did not use condoms in their sexual practices, even if they had knowledge about the forms of virus transmission.

Descriptors: Aging. Risk groups. HIV. Elderly.

from International Archives of Medicine

Clinical Complications In Pregnancy And The Relationship With Low Birth Weight And Prematurity Of The Newborn

Study in order to know the results of prenatal care related to clinical complications of pregnancy, newborn’s low birth weight and prematurity in the context of the users of the service. Descriptive, exploratory research with quantitative approach developed with 305 users who underwent prenatal care in primary care in the city of Mossoró-RN. The data collection occurred from the application of a validated questionnaire, the IPR-PRENATAL index. The results indicate that over 50% of pregnant women had some type of complication during their pregnancy process, among intercurrent diseases in pregnancy, and experienced by users, the urinary tract infection was the most prevalent (28.0%), followed by anemia (19.3%) and hypertension (15.7%). Hypertension and anemia were the only events that interfere with the newborn’s weight, which showed that the existence of complications contributes in three times to the occurrence of low birth weight. In this sense, the quality of prenatal care can minimize that type of complication.

from International Archives of Medicine

National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care: Implications of its implementation in the Brazilian Northeast

Introduction: The Ministry of Health has been very interested in initiative to maintain and / or improve the quality of population health, among which the National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Basic Care (PMAQ) stands out.

Objective: To analyze the changes in the area of work management of the basic care teams after the implementation of the Program of Improvement of Access and Quality of Primary Care (PMAQ) from the perspective of professionals inserted in Primary Care.

Method: This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, carried out in the city of Santa Cruz, in the county of the PMAQ implementation in the Trairi region, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, from September to November 2016. Two techniques were used for data collection: the semi-structured interview with the secretary of health and coordinator of basic care of the county, and the technique of focus group with the graduated professionals who work in the Basic Units that joined the PMAQ.

Results: From this analysis emerged 3 categories: Implementation of the National Program for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care, PMAQ encouraging changes in the health work process, and Evaluation on the PMAQ.

Conclusion: The main change made by the PMAQ in the work process of Primary Care professionals was their organization.


KEY WORDS: primary health Care; Unified Health System; human resources.

from International Archives of Medicine

Mental Health In Primary Care

Objective: To understand how the professionals of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) develop their actions with people who need mental health care.

Methods and results: This is an observational and descriptive research, which predominantly had a qualitative approach. The participants of this research were the professionals of the Reference Teams of the Family Health Strategy of a municipality in the interior of Ceará, in this case, doctors, nurses and dental surgeons. The sample was of twenty participants, which was given by theoretical saturation about the object of study. For the data collection, two techniques were used: semi-structured interview and simple observation. This project was submitted and approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the State University of Ceará (CAAE: 44321015.4.0000.55.34 – Report No.: 1,082,101 / 2015). The data were organized through the technique of the Discourse of the Collective Subject. The results showed that health professionals are not yet ready to promote mental health care in primary care, since they still conceive mental health care from the asylum paradigm and, therefore, act based on the prevalence of diagnosis Psychiatric care, individual care, prescription drugs and renewal of prescriptions.

Conclusion: In this regard, we emphasize the need to invest in continuing education for professionals in order to train them for the mental health act.

Keywords: Mental Health; Primary Health Care; Family Health Strategy.

from International Archives of Medicine

Epidemiological Aspects Of Microcephal Cases And Central Nervous System Changes In Newborn

Objective: To describe the epidemiological situation of cases of microcephaly and / or Central Nervous System changes in newborns in the Northeast region of Brazil.

Methods: Epidemiological, descriptive study with secondary data. Epidemiological data were collected in the Notifiable Diseases Information System, with cumulative data from the years 2015 and 2016. They were processed in the statistical software SPSS – version 21 and analyzed from the descriptive statistics.

Results: It was evidenced that, in the Northeast region, 6,481 cases of microcephaly and / or central nervous system disorders were reported. Of these, the states of Pernambuco and Bahia stand out with a higher percentage of reported and confirmed cases. About the reported deaths, the states of Pernambuco, Ceará and Bahia prevailed. Of the cases of deaths confirmed, the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba.

Conclusion: it is imperative to carry out an ongoing population awareness campaign on the prevention of ZIKAV and how important it is to follow up the pregnant woman during prenatal care. In addition to the constant updating of health professionals regarding microcephaly and the creation of more services to support the NB and their families. Therefore, it is suggested to carry out more studies to understand the reason for the increase in reported cases of microcephaly, being possible to draw up specific strategies for each locality in order to reduce the cases of this disease.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Microcephaly; Central Nervous System; Children.

from International Archives of Medicine

Life perspectives of adolescents in the puerperium

Objective: identify the life perspectives of adolescents in the puerperal period, identifying their feelings regarding motherhood.

Method: qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study, carried out at a public maternity hospital located in João Pessoa/PB. The population consisted of 16 adolescents in the puerperal period. Data were collected from semi-structured questionnaires and the data analysis used descriptive statistics. The Research Ethics Committee of Nova Esperança Colleges approved it, protocol number 41/14 and CAAE: 24222214.0.0000.5179.

Results: the following categories emerged: 1. Sensations and feelings related to the discovery of being a mother; 2. Concern about herself and the baby; 3. Changes in the life routine; 4. Perspectives for future projects. The results reinforce the need to know better the dreams and the ideals that guide the life projects of the adolescents in the puerperal period, in an attempt to construct prevention strategies that are closer to the needs generated in this population group.

Conclusion: The adolescents believed in a promising future, despite difficulties encountered resulting from motherhood. The contribution of the study as a subsidy for the reflection of health professionals about the problem of being a mother during adolescence stands out, which positively influences the quality of care.

 Descriptors: Nursing; Pregnancy in adolescence; Postpartum period.

from International Archives of Medicine