Effects of the single supplementation and multiple doses of Passiflora incarnata L. on human anxiety: A Clinical Trial, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized
Object: This study aimed to investigate the effects of Passiflora incarnata L. on anxiety in humans.
Method: The individuals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Placebo or experimental, n =30, single dose, as well as Placebo or Experimental, n =15, multiple dose. The experimental human anxiety was induced by simulated public speaking test in the following phases: Basal (B), stressful (A), speech 1 (S1), speech 2 (S2) and Final (F). We evaluated the Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), and Diastolic (DBP), Heart Rate (HR), Electrical Conductance of Skin and extremities temperature (ET) and filled The state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI S e T).
Results: During the single dose, the HR was reduced at the end of the speech (86±2,0 to 74±3,0 bpm) the experimental group compared to the placebo group (p<0,05); the STAI-S did not change. In the delineation of multiple doses, SBP was reduced, in mmHg, in the experimental group compared to the placebo group during all phases. Experimental: 106±1,0 (B), 111±1,0 (A), 121±2,0 (S1), 115±3 (S2), 104±2,0 (F) e Placebo: 121±3,0; 127±3,0; 130±3,0; 130±4,5; 117±3,0 (p<0,05).
Conclusions: It is suggested that supplementation using Passiflora incarnata L. Capsules (500 mg) decreased cardiovascular signals both in single and in multiple doses, associated with the stress of public speaking.
2. Braga JEF, Pordeus LC, Silva ATMC, Pimenta FCF, Diniz MFFM, Almeida RN (2010)
3. Pathological anxiety: Neural Bases and advances in psychopharmacological approach. Rev Bras Cienc Saude 14:93-100. doi:10.4034/RBCS.2010.14.02.13
4. Lakhan SE, Vieira KF (2010) Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review. Nutr J 9:1-14. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-42
5. Tabach R, Mattei R, Carlini ELA (2009) Pharmacological evaluation of a phytotherapeutic product - CPV (dry extract of Crataegus oxyacantha L.,Passiflora incarnata L. and Valeriana officinalis L.) in laboratory animals. Rev Bras Farmagn 19: 255-60
6. Alexandre RF, Garcia FN, Simões CMO (2005) Herbal Medicine Evidence-Based. Part 2. Herbal Medicines made with Artichoke, Chestnut-of-India, Ginseng and Passion Fruit. Acta Farm Bonaer 24:310-14
7. Rodriguez-Fragozo L, Reyes-Esparza J, Burchiel SW, Herrera-Ruiz D, Torres E (2008) Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 227:125-35. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2007.10.005
8. Zeraik ML, Pereira CAM, Zuin VG, Yariwake JH (2010) Passionflower: a functional food? Rev. Bras. de Farmagn 20:459-71
9. Sena et al. (2009) Neuropharmacological Activity of the Pericarp of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa Degener: Putative Involvement of C-Glycosylflavonoids. Exp Biol Med 967-975. doi: 10.3181/0902-RM-84
10. Akhondzadeh, S. et al. (2001) Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm 26: 363-367
11. Aslanargun P, Cuvas O, Dikmen B, Aslan E, Yuksel MU (2012) Passiflora incarnata Linneaus as an anxiolytic before spinal anesthesia. J Anesth 26: 39-44. doi: 10.1007/s00540-011-1265-6
12. Brunello, N. et al. (2000) Social phobia: diagnosis and epidemiology, neurobiology, comorbity and treatment. J Affect Disord 60: 61-74. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00140-8
13. Mcnair DM, Frankenthaler LM, Czerlinsky T, White TW, Fisher S (1982) Simulated public speaking as a model of clinical anxiety. Psychopharmacology 77:7-10
14. Guimarães FS, Zuardi AW, Graeff FG (1988) Effect of chlorimipramine and maprotiline on experimental anxiety in humans. J Psychopharmacol 1:184-192. doi: 10.1177/026988118700100305
15. Movafegh A, Alizadeh R, Hajimohamadi F, Esfehani F, & Nejatfar M (2008) Preoperative oral Passiflora Incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients:A double-blind, placebo controlled study. Anesth Analg 106:1728-2. doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e318172c3f9
16. Garcia-Leal C, Parente ACBV, Del-Bem CM,Guimarães FS, Moreira AC (2005) Anxiety and salivary cortisol in symtomatic and nonsymptomatic panic and heathy volunteers performing simulated public speaking. Psy Res 133: 239-52. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2004.04.010
17. Graeff, FG (2007) Ansiedade experimental humana. Rev Psiquiatr Clín 34:251-53
18. Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE (1979) Trait Anxiety Inventory-State CEPA, Rio de Janeiro
19. Biaggio AMB, Natalício L (1979) Manual for the Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI). CEPA, Rio de Janeiro
20. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RHC, Chagas MHN, Oliveira DCG, Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, et al. (2011) Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 36, 1219-26. doi:10.1038/npp.2011.6
21. Lewisa BJ, Herrlingera KA, Craigb TA, Mehring-Franklinb CE, Freitas Z, Hinojosa-Laborde C (2013) Antihypertensive effect of passion fruit peel extract and its major bioactive components following acute supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J nutr biochem 24:1359–66. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.11.003
22. Konta EM, Almeida MR, Amaral CL, Darin JDC, Rosso VV, Mercadante AZ, et al. (2014) Evaluation of the Antihypertensive Propertiesof Yellow Passion Fruit Pulp (Passiflora edulisSims f. flavicarpa Deg.) in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Phytother Res 28:28–32. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4949
23. Ichimura T,Yamanaka YA,Ichiba T, Toyokawa T,Kamada Y, Tamamura T, et al. (2006) Antihypertensive Effect of an Extract of Passiflora edulis Rind in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:718–21
24. Souto MLS, São Mateus CR, Souza LMA , Groppo FC (2014) Effect of Erythrina mulungu on anxiety during extraction of third molars. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 19:518-24. PMCID: PMC4192578
25. Amsterdam JD, Li Y, Soeller Y, Rockwell K, Mao JJ, Shults J (2009) A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo ControlledTrial of Oral Matricaria Recutita (Chamomile) Extract Therapy of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 29: 378-82. doi:10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181ac935c
26. Cases J, Ibarra A, Feuillère N, Roller M, Sukkar SG (2011) Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Med J N Metab 4:211–218. doi: 10.1007/s12349-010-0045-4
27. Kitaoka K, Uchida K, Okamoto N, Chikahisa S, Miyazaki T, Takeda E et al. (2009) Fermented Ginseng Improves the First-Night Effect in Humans. SLEEP 32:413-22
28. Alramadhan E, Hanna MS, Hanna MS, Goldstein TA, Avila SM, Weeks BS (2012) Dietary and botanical anxiolytics. Med Sci Monit 2012; 18(4):40-48. PMID: 22460105
29. Kynris E, Coleman E, Rothestein E (2009) Natural Remedies for Anxiety Disorders: Potential use and clinical applications. Depress Anxiety 26:259–65. doi: 10.1002/da.20460
30. Dhakal R, Bajpai VK, Baek K (2012) Production of Gaba (γ - Aminobutyric Acid) by Microorganisms: A Review. Braz J Microbiol ; 1230-1241
31. Crichton GE, Elias MF, Dore GA, Robbins MA (2012) Relation between dairy food intake and cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Int Dairy J 22; 15-23. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2011.08.001
32. Vaz JS, Kac G, Emmett P, Davis JM, Golding J, Hibbeln JR (2013) Dietary Patterns, n-3 Fatty Acids Intake from Seafood and High Levels of Anxiety Symptoms during Pregnancy:Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. PLOS ONE 8:1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067671
33. Carroll D, Ring C, Suter M, Willemsen G (2000) The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Psychopharmacology 150:220–225. doi:10.1007/s002130000406
34. Kennedy DO, Veasey R, Watson A, Dodd F, Jones E, Maggini S et al. (2010) Effects of high-dose B vitamin complex with vitamin C and minerals on subjective mood and performance in healthy males. Psychopharmacology 211:55–68. doi: 10.1007/s00213-010-1870-3
35. Kennedy DO, Veasey R, Watson A, Dodd F, Jones E, Tiplady B. et al. (2011) Vitamins and psychological functioning: a mobile phone assessment of the effects of a B vitamin complex, vitamin C and minerals on cognitive performance and subjective mood and energy. Hum Psychopharmacol 26: 338–347. doi:10.1002/hup.1216
36. Smriga M, Ando T, Akutsu M, Furukawa Y, Miwa K, Morinaga Y (2007) Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans. Biomed Res 28:85-90
37. Jezova D, Makatsori A, Smriga M, Morinaga Y, Duncko R (2005) Subchronic treatment with amino acid mixture of L-lysine and L-arginine modifies neuroendocrine activation during psychosocial stress in subjects with high trait anxiety. Nutr Neurosci 8: 155–160. doi:10.1080/10284150500162937
38. Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A, Rashidi H, Khani M (2001) Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety:A pilotdouble-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharmacol 26:363-7. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2710.2001.00367.x
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
Articles are published Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License ©