Evaluation of Learning and Competence in the Training of Nurses

  • Cícera Maria Braz da Silva
  • Rejane Maria Paiva de Menezes
  • Rafaella Guilherme Gonçalves

Abstract

Introduction: health education becomes a more complex process, since it aims to ensure the training of professionals with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary for their performance, requiring the adoption of strategies that allow the integral evaluation of these competences.


Objective: analyze the scientific evidence about the evaluation of learning and competence in undergraduate nursing education. 


Method: integrative literature review with online search in LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and CINAHL databases, using these descriptors: Competence Based Education, Nursing Education, Learning and Assessment. 


Results: the 18 articles analyzed, based on a synthesis and critical analysis, allowed the identification of the following thematic categories: concept of competence; essential competences to the training of nurses; learning strategies; and evaluation. It was evidenced that, despite the polysemy around the term competence, the concept presented more similarities than differences. The nursing competencies identified are similar to those recommended by the National Curriculum Guidelines, emphasizing learning strategies in simulated settings and doubts about methods and the construction of evaluation tools.  Conclusions: the evaluation of learning and competence continues to be a challenge for nursing educators and it is recognized that there are difficulties in this process. In this sense, it seems necessary to develop reliable evaluation tools, based on criteria and indicators, that can verify the performance of the student in action and their earliest possible approximation to real learning scenarios.


Keywords: Competency-Based Education. Education. Nursing. Learning. Evaluation.

References

1. Zabala A, Arnau L. Como aprender e ensinar competências. Porto Alegre (RS): Artmed; 2010.
2. Juvé, ME, Hugue M, Monterde D, Sanmartín, MJ, Marti N, Cuevas B, et al. Marco teórico y conceptual de competencias del profesional hospitalario. Parte I. Nursing (Ed. española) [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2015 May 27];25(4):[about 6 p.]. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S021253820770907X
3. Nascimento DDG, Oliveira MAC. Reflexões sobre as competências profissionais para o processo de trabalho nos núcleos de apoio a saúde da família. O Mundo da Saúde. [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2016 Jan 12];34(1):[about 5 p.]. Available from: www.saocamilo-sp.br/pdf/mundo_saude/74/12_revisao_reflexoes.pdf
4. Conselho Nacional de Educação (Brasil), Câmara de Educação Superior (Brasil). Resolução CNE/CES nº.3 de 7 de novembro de 2001. Instituem diretrizes curriculares nacionais do curso de Graduação em Enfermagem. Diário Oficial da União 9 de nov de 2001. Seção 1, p.37. [cited 2015 Dec 06]. Available from: http://portal.mec.gov.br/cne/arquivos/pdf/CES03.pdf
5. Camelo SHH, Angerami ELS. Competência profissional: a construção de conceitos, estratégias desenvolvidas pelos serviços de saúde e implicações para a enfermagem. Texto & Contexto Enferm [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2015 Dec 12];22(2):[about 9 p.]. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-07072013000200034
6. Perrenoud P. Desenvolver competências ou ensinar saberes? A escola que prepara para a vida. Porto Alegre (RS): Penso; 2013.
7. Irigoin M, Vargas F. Competencia laboral: manual de conceptos, métodos y aplicaciones en el sector salud. Montevideo: Cinterfor; 2002.
8. González J, Wagenaar R. Tuning Educational Structures in Europe II. Universitites’ contribution to the bologna process: an introduction. Bilbao: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Deusto [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2016 June 13]. Available from: http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/images/stories/Publications/ENGLISH_BROCHURE_FOR_WEBSITE.pdf
9. Dellai M, Mortari L, Meretoja R. Self-assessment of nursing competencies: validation of the Finnish NCS instrument with Italian nurses. Scand J Caring Sci [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2015 Dec 06];23(4):[about 9 p.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19473316
10. Soares CB, Hoga LAK, Peduzzi M, Sangaleti C, Yonekura T, Silva DRAD. Revisão integrativa: conceitos e métodos utilizados na enfermagem. Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2014;48(2):335-45. doi:  https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0080-6234201400002000020
11. Ganong LH. Integrative reviews of nursing research. Res Nurs & Health [Internet]. 1987 [cited 2015 Dec 06];10:[about 11 p.]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/19518297_Integrative_review_of_nursing_research
12. Polit DF, Beck CT. Fundamentos de pesquisa em enfermagem: avaliação de evidência de evidências para a prática da enfermagem. 7ª ed. Porto Alegre (RS): Artmed; 2011.
13. Lo Biondo-Wood G, Haber J. Pesquisa em enfermagem: métodos, avaliação crítica e utilização. 4ª ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 2001.
14. De Domenico EBL, Ide CAC. Referências para o ensino de competências na enfermagem. Rev Bras Enferm. 2005;58(4):453-7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-71672005000400014
15. Knebel E, Puttkammer N, Demes A, Devirois, R, Prismy M. Developing a competency-based curriculum in HIV for nursing schools in Haiti. Hum Resour Health [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2015 Dec 06];6:17. Available from: http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/6/1/17
16. Damron-Rodriguez JA. Developing competence for nurses and social workers. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2015 Dec 06];108(9):[about 6 p.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18797224
17. Davó MC, Gil-González D, Vives-Cases C, Álvarez-Dardet C, Ronda E, Ortiz-Moncada R, et al. ¿Quiénes y qué pueden hacer en salud pública? las competencias profesionales como base para la elaboración de programas en el Espacio Europeo de Educación. Gac Sanit [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2015 Dec 06];23(1):[about 11 p.]. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0213911108000320
18. Dell'Acqua MCQ, Miyadahira AM K, Ide CAC. Planejamento de ensino em enfermagem: intenções educativas e as competências clínicas. Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2015;43(2):264-271. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0080-62342009000200002
19. Baillie L, Curzio J. A survey of first year student nurses' experiences of learning blood pressure measurement. Nurse Educ Pract [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2015 Dec 06];9(1):[about 11 p.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18585958
20. Andrew N, McGuinness C, Reid G, Corcoran T. Greater than the sum of its parts: Transition into the first year of undergraduate nursing. Nurse Educ Pract [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2015 Dec 06];9(1):[about 11 p.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18492615
21. Paranhos VD, Mendes MMR. Competency-based curriculum and active methodology: perceptions of nursing students. Rev Latino-Am Enfermagem [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2015 Dec 06];18(1):[about 7 p.]. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-11692010000100017&lng=en
22. Johannesson E, Olsson M, Petersson G, Silén C. Learning features in computer simulation skills training. Nurse Educ Pract [Internet] 2010 [cited 2015 Dec 06];10(5):[about 7 p.]. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1471595309001863
23. Barrios Araya S, Masalán Apip MP, Cook MP. Educación en salud: en la búsqueda de metodologías innovadoras. Cienc. enferm [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2015 Dec 06];17(1): [about 13 p.]. Available from: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-95532011000100007&lng=es
24. Kiguli S, Baingana R, Paina L, Mafigiri D, Groves S, Katende G, et al. Situational analysis of teaching and learning of medicine and nursing students at Makerere University College of Health Sciences. BMC Int Health Hum Rights [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2015 Dec 06];11(Suppl 1):53. Available from: http://bmcinthealthhumrights.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-698X-11-S1-S3
25. Scherer ZAP, Scherer EA. Identificação dos pilares da educação na disciplina integralidade do cuidado à saúde. Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2012;46(4):985-993. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0080-62342012000400029
26. Riley JB, Yearwood EL. The effect of a pedagogy of curriculum infusion on nursing student well-being and intent to improve the quality of nursing care. Arch Psychiatr Nurs [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2015 Dec 06];26(5): [about 10 p.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22999032
27. Bornais JAK, Raiger JE, Krahn RE, El-Masri MM. Evaluating undergraduate nursing students' learning using standardized patients. J Prof Nurs [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2015 Dec 06];28(5): [about 10 p.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23006651
28. Ruzafa-Martinez M, Lopez-Iborra L, Moreno-Casbas T, Madrigal-Torres M. Development and validation of the competence in evidence based practice questionnaire (EBP-COQ) among nursing students. BMC Med Educ [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2015 Dec 06];13:19. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6920/13/19
29. Liou SR, Chang CH, Tsai HM, Cheng CY. The effects of a deliberate practice program on nursing students' perception of clinical competence. Nurse Educ Today [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2015 Dec 06];33(4):[about 6 p.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22858306
30. Raymond JE, Homer CSE, Smith R, Gray JE. Learning through authentic assessment: an evaluation of a new development in the undergraduate midwifery curriculum. Nurse Educ Pract [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2015 Dec 06];13(5):[about 6 p.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23140801
31. Muganyizi PS, Ishengoma J, Kanama J, Kikumbih N, Mwanga F, Killian R, et al. An analysis of pre-service family planning teaching in clinical and nursing education in Tanzania. BMC Med Educ [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2015 Dec 06];14:142. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6920/14/142
32. Silva KL, Araújo FL A, Santos FBO, Andrade AMA, Basílio NC, Sena RR. O que vem se falando por aí em competências no ensino da promoção da saúde na formação do enfermeiro? ABCS Health Sci. [Internet] 2016 [cited 2016 June 13];40(3):[about 6 p.]. Available from: https://www.portalnepas.org.br/abcshs/article/view/809
33. Seoane MªJF, Álvarez MT. Revisión histórica de la garantía de calidad externa en las instituciones de educación superior. Rev Educ Sup [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2016 June 13];39(155):[about 14 p.]. Available from: http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0185-27602010000300007&lng=es&nrm=iso
34. Blažun H, Kokol Peter, Vošne J. Research literature production on nursing competences from1981 till 2012: a bibliometric snapshot. Nurse Educ Today [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 Dec 06];35(5):[about 6 p.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25616510
35. Beneitone P, Esquetini C, González J, Maletá MM, Wagenaar R. Reflections on and outlook for Higher Education in Latin America. Final Report-Tuning Latin America Project 2004-2007. Publicaciones de la Universidad de Deusto [Internet] 2007 [cited 2016 June 13]. Available from: http://tuningacademy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/TuningLAIII_Final-Report_EN.pdf
36. Lima VV. Competência: distintas abordagens e implicações na formação de profissionais de saúde. Comunic Saúde Edu [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2016 June 6];9(17):[about 4 p.]. Available from: http://www.scielosp.org/pdf/icse/v9n17/v9n17a12.pdf
37. Garside JR, Nhemachena JZ. A concept analysis of competence and its transition in nursing. Nurse Educ Today [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2015 Dec 06];33(5):[about 5 p.]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22257583
38. Kajander-Unkuri S, Salminen L, Saarikoski M, Suhonen R, Leino-Kilpi H. Competence areas of nursing students in Europe. Nurse Educ Today. [Internet] 2013 [cited 2015 Dec 06];33(6):[about 8 p.]. Available from: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0260691713000191
Published
2017-02-21
How to Cite
BRAZ DA SILVA, Cícera Maria; PAIVA DE MENEZES, Rejane Maria; GUILHERME GONÇALVES, Rafaella. Evaluation of Learning and Competence in the Training of Nurses. International Archives of Medicine, [S.l.], v. 10, feb. 2017. ISSN 1755-7682. Available at: <http://imedicalsociety.org/ojs/index.php/iam/article/view/2349>. Date accessed: 23 aug. 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.3823/2297.
Section
Medical Education