The Use Of Spikes Protocol In Cancer: An Integrative Review

  • Fernando Henrique de Sousa
  • Vitor Engrácia Valenti
  • Mariana P. Hamaji
  • Carla Ap. P. de Sousa
  • David Matthew Garner
  • Namie Okino Sawada

Abstract

This is an integrative review which aimed to evaluate the use of the SPIKES protocol in Oncology. We selected articles published in Medline and CINAHL databases between 2005-2015, in English, with the descriptors defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH):cancer, neoplasms, plus the uncontrolled descriptor: protocol spikes. 


Six articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in full, three thematic categories were established: aspects inherent to the health care professional; Aspects related to the patient and aspects related to the protocol. The main effects of the steps of SPIKES protocol can provide the strengthening of ties between health professionals and patients, and ensure the maintenance and quality of this relationship. 


The results indicate an important limiting factor for effective doctor-patient relationship, the little training provided to medical professionals communication of bad news, verified by the difficulty reported in this moment through interviews in the analyzed studies.

References

1. Primo WQSP, Garrafa V. Ethical analysis of disclosure of diagnosis and treatment in patients with genital or breast cancer. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira.2010; 56(4): 397-402. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ramb/v56n4/10.pdf.

2. Silva VCE, Zago MMF. The impact of the disclosure of diagnosis of cancer in the patients' perception. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem.2005; 58(4): 476-480. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0034-71672005000400019&script=sci_arttext.

3. Vandekieft GK. Breaking Bad News. American Family Physician. 2001; 64(12): 1975-1979. Available from: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/1215/p1975.html.

4. Muller P. Breaking Bad news to patients - The SPIKES approach can make this difficult task easier. Journal of Postgraduate Medicin. 2002; 112(3): 1-6.


5. Eid A, Petty M, Hutchins L, Thompson R. Breaking bad news: standardized patient intervention improves communication skills for Hematology-Oncology fellows and advanced practice nurses. Journal of Cancer Education.2009; 24(2): 154-159. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19431034

6. Bonamigo EL, Destefani AS. Dramatization as a teaching strategy of communication of bad news to the patient during medical graduation. Revista Bioética. 2010; 18(3): 725 –742. Available from:http://revistabioetica.cfm.org.br/index.php/revista_bioetica/article/viewFile/596/619


7. Baile WF. et al. SPIKES – A Six-Step Protocol for Delivering Bad News: Application to the Patient with Cancer. In: The Oncologist. 2000; 5: 302-311. Available from: http://theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/content/5/4/302.full

8. Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA). Communication difficult news: sharing challenges in health care. 2010;1. Available from: http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/comunicacao_noticias_dificeis.pdf.

9. Nicolussi AC. Quality of life of patients with colon and rectal cancer: an integrative literature review. [dissertação]. Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. [Internet]. 2008. [citado 2015 abr 16]. Available from: http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/22/22132/tde-03092008-111111/pt-br.php


10. Ganong LH. Integrative Reviews of Nursing Research. Research in Nursing & Health. 1987;, (10):1-11.

11. Broome ME. Integrative literature reviews for the development of concepts. In: Rodgers BL, Knalf KA. Concept development in nursing: foudations, techniques and applications. Philadelphia WB. Sounders Company. 2000; p. 231-250.


12. Warnock C, Tod A, Foster J, Soreny C. Breaking bad news in inpatient clinical settings: role of the nurse. Journal of Advanced Nursing.2010; 66(7): 1543-55. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20492016

13. Geovanini F, Braz M. Ethical conflicts in communication of bad news in oncology. Rev. Bioét 2013;21(3): 455-462. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1983-80422013000300010&lng=pt&nrm=iso.

14. Bonnaud-Antignac A, Campion L, Pottier P, Supiot S. Videotaped simulated interviews to improve medical students’ skills in disclosing a diagnosis of cancer. Psychooncology. 2010; 19(9): 975-981. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19918865

15. Konstantis A, Exiara T. Breaking bad news in cancer patients. Indian journal of palliative care. 2015; 21(1):35. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4332125/


16. Seifart C, Hofmann M, Bär T, Knorrenschild JR, Seifart U, Rief W. Breaking bad news–what patients want and what they get: evaluating the SPIKES protocol in Germany. Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(3): 707-11. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24504443

17. Morgans AK, Schapira L. Confronting therapeutic failure: A conversation guide. The Oncologist. 2015; 20: 946–951. Available from: http://theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/content/early/2015/06/22/theoncologist.2015-0050


18. Barrios L, Tsuda S, Derevianko A, et al. Framing family conversation after early diagnosis of iatrogenic injury and incidental findings. Surg Endosc. 2009; 23: 2535–2542. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19343426

19. M. Kaplan. SPIKES: a framework for breaking bad news to patients with cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2010; 14: 514–516. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20682509


20. Bonnaud‐Antignac A, et al. Videotaped simulated interviews to improve medical students' skills in disclosing a diagnosis of cancer. Psycho‐Oncology.2009; 19(9): 975-981. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pon.1649/abstract;jsessionid=98FF3024A8D334CFE11B7533D6CA5456.f03t04?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=.
Published
2017-03-14
How to Cite
DE SOUSA, Fernando Henrique et al. The Use Of Spikes Protocol In Cancer: An Integrative Review. International Archives of Medicine, [S.l.], v. 10, mar. 2017. ISSN 1755-7682. Available at: <http://imedicalsociety.org/ojs/index.php/iam/article/view/2403>. Date accessed: 29 june 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.3823/2324.
Section
Oncology