The Use Of Spikes Protocol In Cancer: An Integrative Review

  • Fernando Henrique de Sousa
  • Vitor Engrácia Valenti
  • Mariana P. Hamaji
  • Carla Ap. P. de Sousa
  • David Matthew Garner
  • Namie Okino Sawada


This is an integrative review which aimed to evaluate the use of the SPIKES protocol in Oncology. We selected articles published in Medline and CINAHL databases between 2005-2015, in English, with the descriptors defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH):cancer, neoplasms, plus the uncontrolled descriptor: protocol spikes. 

Six articles met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in full, three thematic categories were established: aspects inherent to the health care professional; Aspects related to the patient and aspects related to the protocol. The main effects of the steps of SPIKES protocol can provide the strengthening of ties between health professionals and patients, and ensure the maintenance and quality of this relationship. 

The results indicate an important limiting factor for effective doctor-patient relationship, the little training provided to medical professionals communication of bad news, verified by the difficulty reported in this moment through interviews in the analyzed studies.


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How to Cite
DE SOUSA, Fernando Henrique et al. The Use Of Spikes Protocol In Cancer: An Integrative Review. International Archives of Medicine, [S.l.], v. 10, mar. 2017. ISSN 1755-7682. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 nov. 2019. doi: