Thermal and cardiorespiratory newborn adaptations during hot tub bath

  • Gentil Gomes da Fonseca Filho
  • João Octávio Sales Passos
  • Valéria Azevedo de Almeida
  • Carla Monique de Aquino Ribeiro
  • Jane Carla de Souza
  • Glauco Francisco de Araújo Silva
  • Cristiane Aparecida Moran
  • Silvana Alves Pereira


Objective: To evaluate thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptation during hot tub bath and shower in healthy newborns in the first hours of life. Study design: This is a randomized blind controlled trial, registered in ReBEC (No. RBR-4z26f3) with 184 newborns divided into hot tub group (n=84) and shower (n=100). Newborns from intervention group were immersed in a hot tub with warm water up to the neck, without exposure to air flow, and control group received traditional shower. Heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature were measured before and immediately after bath by an investigator blinded to the type of bath.

Results: Groups were similar in gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5th minute and hours of life, p => 0.05. To analyze thermal and cardiorespiratory adjustments, difference between post-bath variables and pre-bath was calculated. In this analysis, it was found statistically significant difference between two types of bath regarding heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature. Hot tub bath decreases heart and respiratory rates and increases temperature, whereas shower provides the opposite effect (0.0001).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that hot tub baths and shower, in healthy newborns, promote thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptations, reflecting thermal, cardiac and respiratory positive reactions after hot tub bath.

Mar 24, 2017
How to Cite
GOMES DA FONSECA FILHO, Gentil et al. Thermal and cardiorespiratory newborn adaptations during hot tub bath. International Archives of Medicine, [S.l.], v. 10, mar. 2017. ISSN 1755-7682. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 28 apr. 2017. doi: