The Indirect Cost of Disability Adjusted Life Years Lost among the Elderly in Kenya
Background: As Kenya accelerates the momentum to attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 3 on health and 13 on combatting impacts of climate change, it is critically important not to overlook their impacts on the elderly, i.e. people aged 60 years and above (elderly). The objective of this study was to estimate the indirect cost (productivity losses) of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost among the elderly in Kenya in 2015.
Methods: The indirect cost associated with jth disease (or health condition) DALYs lost among the elderly is the product of the per capita non-health GDP in purchasing power parity (PPP) and the total jth disease (or health condition) DALYs lost in a specific age group. Per capita non-health GDP equals Kenya’s per capita GDP minus total health expenditure in 2015. The study covers all the diseases and health conditions reported in WHO Global Health Observatory (GHO). The data on DALYs and per capita total health expenditure were obtained from WHO GHO; while per capita GDP data was from IMF World Economic Outlook database.
Results: About 2,238,004 DALYs were lost among the elderly in 2015. That health loss resulted into a total indirect cost of Int$ 7,088,274,986; which was evenly distributed among males and females. Approximately, 64.1% of the indirect cost resulted from non-communicable diseases, 29.3% from communicable and nutritional conditions, and 12.2% from injuries. If Kenya is able to fully achieve SDG targets 3.1 on maternal mortality, 3.3 on communicable diseases, 3.4 on NCDs and 3.6 on road traffic accidents by 2030, that would lead to a reduction of 625,238.21 DALYs (38.4%) lost among the elderly, which is equivalent to a saving of Int$ 1,986,641,742 (44.9%) in indirect costs (productivity losses).
Conclusions: Kenya incurs every year substantive productivity losses due to morbidity and premature mortality among the elderly. Therefore, there is need for increased government, private sector and partner investments into health and wellbeing of the elderly to prolong their intrinsic and functional capacities.
Key words: Elderly, indirect cost, productivity loss, disability-adjusted life year (DALY)
2. WHO. Global Health Estimates 2015: deaths by Cause, Age, Sex, by Country and by Region, 2000-2015. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
3. WHO. Multisectoral action for a life course approach to healthy ageing: draft global strategy and plan of action on ageing and health. Sixty-Ninth World Health Assembly document A69/17. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
4. Kenya National Human Rights Commission. Growing old in Kenya: making it a positive experience. Nairobi: KNHRC; 2009.
5. Kenya Government. The Kenya Constitution. Nairobi: Government Printers;2010.
6. Kenya Government. National policy on older persons and ageing. Nairobi: Government Printers; 2014.
7. Kenya Government. Kenya Health Policy 2014–2030. Nairobi: Government Printers; 2014.
8. Kenya Government Ministry of East African Community, Labour and Social Protection. State Department of Social Protection website: http://www.labour.go.ke/social-welfare.html. Accessed at 18h19 on 23rd April 2017.
9. United Nations. Seventieth session of the United Nations General Assembly resolution A/RES/70/1. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. New York: UN; 2015.
10. WHO. World Report on Ageing and Health. Geneva: WHO; 2015.
11. WHO. WHO methods and data sources for global burden of disease 2000-2015. Global Health Estimates Technical Paper WHO/HIS/HSI/GHE/2017.1. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.
12. International Monetary Fund (IMF). World Economic Outlook Database. Washington, D.C.: IMF; 2016. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2015/02/weodata/weorept.aspx? Accessed on 7 February 2017 at 15h30.
13. WHO. Global Health Expenditure Database. Geneva: WHO; 2017. URL: http://apps.who.int/nha/database/ViewData/Indicators/en. Accessed on 7 Feb 2017 at 11h26.
14. WHO. Global vector control response 2017-2030. Geneva: WHO; 2017.
15. WHO. Global technical strategy and targets for malaria 2016–2030. WHA resolution WHA68.2. Geneva: WHO; 2015.
16. WHO. A framework for malaria elimination. Geneva: WHO; 2017.
17. WHO. Draft global health sector strategies: HIV: 2016–2021. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
18. WHO. Global health sector strategy on sexually transmitted infections: 2016–2021. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
19. WHO. Global health sector strategy on sexually transmitted infections: 2016–2021. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
20. WHO. Global action plan for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases 2013–2020. Sixty-Sixth World Health Assembly Doc. A66/9. Geneva: WHO; 2013.
21. WHO. Global strategy for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Geneva: WHO; 2000.
22. WHO. Comprehensive mental health action plan 2013–2020. World Health Assembly Resolution WHA66.8. Geneva: WHO; 2013.
23. WHO. WHO global plan of action to strengthen the role of the health system within a national multisectoral response to address interpersonal violence, in particular against women and girls, and against children. Sixty-ninth WHA resolution WHA69.5. Geneva; WHO; 2016.
24. WHO. Addressing the challenges of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011–2020): outcome of the second Global High-level Conference on Road Safety – Time for Results. WHA resolution WHA69.7. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
25. WHO. Brasilia Declaration. Second Global High-level Conference on Road Safety: Time for Results Brasilia, 18-19 November 2015. Geneva: WHO; 2015.
26. WHO. Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020. Geneva: WHO; 2011.
27. WHO. Global status report on road safety 2015. Geneva: WHO; 2015.
28. WHO. The Global strategy and action plan on ageing and health 2016–2020: towards a world in which everyone can live a long and healthy life. World Health Assembly resolution WHA 69.3. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
29. WHO. The Global strategy and action plan on ageing and health 2016–2020: towards a world in which everyone can live a long and healthy life. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
30. United Nations (UN). Political Declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases. UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/66/2. New York: UN; 2011.
31. UN. Consolidating gains and accelerating efforts to control and eliminate malaria in developing countries, particularly in Africa, by 2030. UNGA resolution A/RES/70/300. New York: UN; 2016.
32. UN. Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. UNGA resolution A/RES/S-26/2. New York; UN; 2001.
33. UN. Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS. UNGA resolution A/RES/60/262. New York: UN; 2006.
34. UN. UN Security Council Resolution 1308 (2000) on the Responsibility of the Security Council in the Maintenance of International Peace and Security: HIV/AIDS and International Peace-keeping Operations. New York; 2000.
35. UN. Improving global road safety. General Assembly Resolution: A/RES/64/2455, 2 March 2010. UN: 2010.
36. UN. Improving global road safety. General Assembly resolution A/RES/70/260. New York: UN; 2015.
37. UN. Improving global road safety. General Assembly resolution A/RES/68/269. New York: UN; 2014.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
Articles are published Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License ©