Impact of prenatal antimicrobial treatment on fetal brain damage due to autogenous fecal peritonitis in Wistar rats: A Histomorphometric Study
Purpose: To investigate brain neuronal density in newborn rats whose mothers were subjected to fecal peritonitis and compare findings between rats born to mothers treated and not treated with antimicrobials.
Methods: Peritonitis was induced with a 10% fecal suspension (4mL/kg) in 2 pregnant rats. Of these, 1 received antimicrobial treatment 24 hours after peritonitis induction: moxifloxacin and dexamethasone plus 2 mL of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi extract. One pregnant rat underwent no intervention and served as a control.
Results: The newborn brains of rats born to mothers with fecal peritonitis were significantly smaller and of less firm consistency. Brain neuronal density was lower in the untreated group than in the control and treated groups (P<0.01).
Conclusions: Untreated peritonitis caused brain damage in the offspring, which was averted by effective early antimicrobial treatment. This approach may provide an early avenue for translation of such therapy in humans.
Keywords: peritonitis, brain injuries, rats
Adar, T., Grisaru-Granovsky, S., Ben Ya'acov, A., Goldin E., & Bar-Gil Shitrit A. (2015). Pregnancy and the immune system: general overview and the gastroenterological perspective. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 60(9), 2581-2589. doi: 10.1007/s10620-015-3683-z
Brandt, C. T., Melo, M. C., Gadelha, D. N., Gadelha, N. N., Oliveira, T. K., & Falcao, M. P. (2014). Brain damage and congenital cataract due to autogenously fecal peritonitis in pregnant Wistar rats. Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, 29(10), 681-687. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25318001
Burd, I., Balakrishnan, B., & Kannan, S. (2012). Models of fetal brain injury, intrauterine inflammation, and preterm birth. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 67(4), 287-294. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2012.01110.x
Cohen, J., Vincent, J. L., Adhikari, N. K., Machado, F. R., Angus, D. C., Calandra, T., Jaton, K., Giulieri, S., Delaloye, J., Opal, S., Tracey, K., van der Poll, T., & Pelfrene, E. (2015). Sepsis: a roadmap for future research. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 581-614. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)70112-X
Gavilanes, A. W., Strackx, E., Kramer, B. W., Gantert, M., Van den Hove, D., Steinbusch, H., Garnier, Y., Cornips, E., Steinbusch, H., Zimmermann, L., & Vles, J. (2009). Chorioamnionitis induced by intraamniotic lipopolysaccharide resulted in an interval-dependent increase in central nervous system injury in the fetal sheep. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 200(4), 431-438. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2008.12.003
Girish, V. & Vijayalakshmi, A. (2004). Affordable image analysis using NIH Image/ImageJ. Indian Journal of Cancer, 41(1), 47. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15105580
Kallapur, S. G., Presicce, P., Rueda, C. M., Jobe, A. H., & Chougnet, C. A. (2014). Fetal immune response to chorioamnionitis. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 32(1), 56-67. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1361823
Lante, F., Meunier, J., Guiramand, J., De Jesus Ferreira, M. C., Cambonie, G., Aimar, R., Cohen-Solal, C., Maurice, T., Vignes, M., & Barbanel, G. (2008). Late N-acetylcysteine treatment prevents the deficits induced in the offspring of dams exposed to an immune stress during gestation. Hippocampus, 18(6), 602-609. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20421
Melo, M. C., Gadelha, D. N., Oliveira, T. K., & Brandt, C. T. (2014). Alcohol extract of Schinus terebinthifolius raddi (anacardiaceae) as a local antimicrobial agent in severe autogenously fecal peritonitis in rats. Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, 29 Suppl 1:52-56. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25185057
Nitsos, I., Rees, S. M., Duncan, J., Kramer, B. W., Harding, R., Newnham, J. P., & Moss, T. J. (2006). Chronic exposure to intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide affects the ovine fetal brain. Journal of the Society of Gynecology Investigation, 13(4), 239-247. doi: 10.1016/j.jsgi.2006.02.011
Patterson, P. H. (2009). Immune involvement in schizophrenia and autism: etiology, pathology and animal models.
Behavioural Brain Research, 204(2), 313-21. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.12.016
Schneider C. A., Rasband W. S. & Eliceiri K. W. (2012). NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nat Methods, 9(7), 671-675. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22930834
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright policies & self-archiving
We are a RoMEO green journal.
Author's Pre-print: author can archive pre-print (ie pre-refereeing)
Author's Post-print: author can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing)
Publisher's Version/PDF: author can archive publisher's version/PDF
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
Articles are published Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ©