Unusual Venous Drainage Of The Common Facial Vein. A Morphologycal Study
Background: Anatomical knowledge of the facial vasculature is crucial not only for anatomists but also for oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgeon, otorhinolaryngologists. Access pathways, pedicled and free flap transfer, and explantation and transplantation of total faces are based on the proper assessment and use of the facial veins and arteries. The anatomical variations reported in the present study confirms the need for preoperative vascular imaging for sure good venous outflow for the free flap survival.
Aims: The aim of the present study was to describe a rare anatomical variation of the common facial vein which not been previously described.
Methods and Findings: Head and neck region were carefully dissected as per standard dissection procedure, studied serially during the years 2013-2017 in 15 males and 2 females, i.e. 34 sides, embalmed adults cadavers with different age group, in the laboratory of Morphology of the University of Pamplona. In 33 sides (97 %) of the cases the anterior facial vein (FV) terminated into the internal jugular vein via the common facial vein (CFV) as per standard anatomic description. The right common facial vein in one side (3%) was found to drain into the contralateral internal thoracic vein and contralateral pericardiophrenic vein. Remarkable communications with the external jugular vein, the internal jugular vein, the anterior jugular vein, and left brachiocephalic vein. The length of the right common facial vein from the level of its formation till its termination in the contralateral pericardiophrenic and internal thoracic vein was about 22.75 cm. The venous drainage pattern on the left side of the face was found to be normal.
Conclusion: The existence of this anatomical variation among others supposes a double edge sword in the medical practice with its own opportunities and risks, especially in the surgical treatment; therefore, we need to study with more strictness these possibilities with the aim of facilitate this practices, and improve the life quality of our patients.
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