Comparison of Dosage Requirement of Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESA) in Maintenance of Hemoglobin Concentration in patients undergoing twice weekly versus thrice weekly Hemodialysis in Pakistani Population

  • Osama Kunwer Naveed Dow Medical College
  • Marium Zafar Dow Medical College
  • Sumbal Nasir Mahmood Professor and Head of Nephrology Department, Ziauddin Hospital, karachi.
  • Kunwer Naveed Mukhtar Department of Nephrology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College

Abstract

Anemia is one of the major complications of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and also increases morbidity and mortality. Anemia in patients with CKD can be due to two major reasons; iron deficiency or erythropoietin insufficiency. Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESAs) administration is the mainstay in treating anemia if the patient is iron sufficient. However, higher doses of ESAs have been associated with increased cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. We conducted this study to see how much erythropoietin is required in our setting in iron sufficient patients to maintain hemoglobin(Hb)  level and the effect of dialysis frequency on ESA doses. 


Methods and Findings:


A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Nephrology at Ziauddin University Hospital. Patients’ charts were reviewed for Hb levels and doses of ESA to maintain Hb between 10-12 mg/dl. Patients were excluded if they had iron deficiency, malignancy, were on immunosuppressive agents, had renal transplant, and with Hb >12 mg/dl or <10 mg/dl and their ferritin levels, transferrin saturation, hemoglobin concentration, frequency of hemodialysis and ESA dosage were monitored. We also compared these variables between patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly with those undergoing hemodialysis twice a week.


A total of 105 patients were analyzed. 24 were excluded as they did not match the inclusion criteria. 81 patients were included in the study. 36 (44.4%) were males and 45 (55.6%) were females. Mean age of the patient was 56.47 ± 11.72 years. The average dose of ESA was 106.91 ± 61.47 for patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly and 183.94 ± 116.71 for patients undergoing hemodialysis twice a week. Significant difference was found to exist between dosage of patients undergoing thrice weekly dialysis versus twice weekly dialysis(p=<0.001).


 Our study has limitations. First our study only looked at Hb levels, iron stores and dosages of ESA, while other factors like Parathyroid Hormone(PTH) levels and Vitamin B12 were not considered that may have a role in anemia of chronic renal disease. In addition, it was a study limited to one center only and a multicenter trial should be taken to validate the results. We have reported one aspect of dialysis vintage i.e.  high ESA dosage requirement


Conclusion:


We found that patients undergoing hemodialysis three times a week require recommended dosage of ESA; however those undergoing hemodialysis less than three times a week require higher dosage of ESA to maintain Hb level. Here we report significant effect of hemodialysis on ESA dosage to maintain same level of Hb. 

References

1. Ma JZ, Ebben J, Xia H, Collins AJ. Hematocrit level and associated mortality in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10:610.
2. World Health Organization. Nutritional Anemia’s: Report of a WHO Scientific Group. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1968.
3. NKF-DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Anemia of Chronic Renal Failure. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47(Suppl 4):S1.
4. Chapter 1: Diagnosis and evaluation of anemia in CKD. Kidney Int Suppl (2011) 2012; 2:288 .
5. Uptodate Version 20 Treatment of anemia in patients undergoing Hemodialysis
6. Besarab A, Bolton WK, Browne JK, et al. The effects of normal as compared with low hematocrit values in patients with cardiac disease who are receiving hemodialysis and epoetin. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:584.
7. Besarab A, Goodkin DA, Nissenson AR, Normal Hematocrit Cardiac Trial Authors. The normal hematocrit study--follow-up. N Engl J Med 2008; 358:433.
8. Besarab A, Bolton WK, Browne JK, et al. The effects of normal as compared with low hematocrit values in patients with cardiac disease who are receiving hemodialysis and epoetin. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:584.
9. Wright DG, Wright EC, Narva AS, et al. Association of Erythropoietin Dose and Route of Administration with Clinical Outcomes for Patients on Hemodialysis in the United States. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2015; 10:1822
10. Hwang HS, Hong YA, Yoon HE, Chang YK et al. Comparison of Clinical Outcome Between Twice-Weekly and Thrice-Weekly Hemodialysis in Patients With Residual Kidney Function. Medicine 2016 Feb; 95(7): e2767
11. Palmer SC, Navaneethan SD, Craig JC., Johnson DW et al. Metaanalysis-erthropoeisis-stimulating-agents in patients with chronic kidney disease Ann-Intern Med 2010;(1531) 23
12. Ebben JP, Gilbertson DT, Foley RN, Collins AJ. Hemoglobin level variability associations with comorbidity , intercurrent events and hospitalizations Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006, 1:1205-1210
13. Kaufman JS, Reda DJ, Fye CL, et al. Subcutaneous compared with intravenous epoetin in patients receiving hemodialysis. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on erythropoietin in hemodialysis patients. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:578
Published
2018-03-25
How to Cite
NAVEED, Osama Kunwer et al. Comparison of Dosage Requirement of Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESA) in Maintenance of Hemoglobin Concentration in patients undergoing twice weekly versus thrice weekly Hemodialysis in Pakistani Population. International Archives of Medicine, [S.l.], v. 11, mar. 2018. ISSN 1755-7682. Available at: <http://imedicalsociety.org/ojs/index.php/iam/article/view/2806>. Date accessed: 19 aug. 2018. doi: https://doi.org/10.3823/2565.
Section
Nephrology