Effect of Protein Supplements on Renal Function and Lipid Profile

  • Rehab M Elgharabway Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Qassim University, KSA / Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Egypt.
  • Amira Ahmed
  • Afnan Alawad


Background: Protein supplements are one of the most frequently dietary supplements used by athletes and non-athletes in Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Saudi population toward the protein supplements, examine the relationships of practice with education level, effect of protein on kidneys and lipid profile, assess the types and source of protein supplements, assess the correct use of protein supplements according to exercise intensity and determine protein content and heavy metals in protein supplements.

Methods: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted during October-December 2017 on protein supplements users in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, samples of the best selling protein supplements were analyzed to determined total protein and heavy metals content.

Results: A total of 398 filled protein supplements user questionnaire. The wrong practice of use associated with the effect of protein supplements on renal function and lipid profile.The percentage of protein content in isolated whey protein (68.18%) whiles by Kjeldhl analysis (80.55%). Concentrated whey protein contain (72%) and by kjeldhl analysis (77.2%). Hydrolyzed collagen containing (100%) protein and by kjeldhl analysis (91.25%).The amount of heavy metals in isolated whey protein contains arsenic (83 μg/kg), mercury (<10 μg/kg) and lead (18 μg/kg), while hydrolyzed collagen sample contains arsenic (101 μg/kg), mercury (<10 μg/kg) and lead (49 μg/kg).

Conclusion: The current study reveals an evidence for lacking of the awareness, negative attitude and abuse of protein supplements, demonstrates necessity to further education regarding the use and purchasing of protein supplements to ensure the quality of these products.



1. Thomson, C. A: Nutritional supplements in sports and exercise.
JAMA. 2010; 303(18), 188-1869.
2. Bianco, A., Mammina, C., Paoli, A., Bellafiore, M., Battaglia,
G., Caramazza, G. and Jemni, M: Protein supplementation in
strength and conditioning adepts: knowledge, dietary behavior
and practice in Palermo, Italy. Journal of the International
Society of Sports Nutrition. 2011; 8(1), 25.
3. Pasiakos, S. M., Lieberman, H. R. and McLellan, T. M: Effects of
protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness and recovery
of muscle function and physical performance: a systematic
review. Sports Medicine. 2014; 44, 655-670.
4. Haerinejad, M. J., Ostovar, A., Farzaneh, M. R. and Keshavarz, M:
The prevalence and characteristics of performance-enhancing
drug use among bodybuilding athletes in the south of Iran,
Bushehr. Asian journal of sports medicine.2016; 7,35-45.
5. Maughan, R. J: Quality Assurance Issues in the Use of Dietary
Supplements, with Special Reference to Protein Supplements, 2.
The Journal of nutrition. 2013; 143(11), 1843-1847.
6. Song, H. and Li, B: Beneficial effects of collagen hydrolysate:
a review on recent developments. Biomed J Sci Technol Res.
2017;5, 1- 4.
7. Flechsenhar, K. and McAlindon, T: Change in Serum
Biomarkers in Patients with Osteoarthritis treated with Collagen
Hydrolysate: Results of a Prospective Randomized Study. Journal
of Arthritis.2016; 5, 219.
8. Phillips, S. M: Current Concepts and Unresolved Questions
in Dietary Protein Requirements and Supplements in Adults.
Frontiers in Nutrition.2017; 4(1), 1-7.
9. Naclerio, F., Alkhatib, A. and Jimenez, A: Effectiveness of whey
protein supplement in resistance trained individuals. Journal of
Sports Medicine & Doping Studies. 2013; 3(3), 1-7.
10. Spendlove, J., Mitchell, L., Gifford, J., Hackett, D., Slater, G.,
Cobley, S. and O’Connor, H:Dietary intake of competitive
bodybuilders. Sports Medicine.2015; 45, 1041-1063.
11. Pasiakos, S. M., Austin, K. G., Lieberman, H. R. and Askew, E. W:
Efficacy and safety of protein supplements for US Armed Forces
personnel: consensus statement. The Journal of nutrition. 2013;
143, 1811-1814.
12. Alissa, E. and Ferns, G: Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular
Disease. Journal of Toxicology.2011; 5, 1-21.
13. Schwingshackl, L. and Hoffmann, G: Long-term effects of lowfat
diet either low or high in protein on cardiovascular and metabolic
risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition journal.2013;
14. Jawadi, A. H., Addar, A. M., Alazzam, A. S., Alrabieah, F. O., Al
Alsheikh, A. S., Amer, R. R. and Badri, M: Prevalence of Dietary
Supplements Use among Gymnasium Users. Journal of nutrition
and metabolism. 2017; 17, 1-8.
15. Alnozha, O. and Elshatarat, R: Influence of Knowledge and
Beliefs on Consumption of Performance Enhancing Agents in
North-Western Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine.2017;
37(4), 317-325.
16. Phillips, S. M. and Van Loon, L. J: Dietary protein for athletes:
from requirements to optimum adaptation. Journal of sports
sciences. 2011; 29, 29-38.
17. Potgieter, S:Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines
for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of
Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee and the
International Society for Sports Nutrition. South African journal
of clinical nutrition. 2013; 26(1), 6-16.
18. Porfírio, E. and Fanaro, G. B: Collagen supplementation as a
complementary therapy for the prevention and treatment of
osteoporosis and osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Revista
Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia. 2016; 19(1), 153-164.
19. Aparicio, V. A., Nebot, E., Porres, J. M., Ortega, F. B., Heredia,
J. M., López-Jurado, M. and Ramírez, P. A: Effects of highwhey-protein
intake and resistance training on renal, bone and metabolic parameters
in rats. British Journal of Nutrition. 2011; 105(6), 836-845.
20. Helms, E. R., Aragon, A. A. and Fitschen, P. J: Evidence-based
recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation:
nutrition and supplementation. Journal of the International
Society of Sports Nutrition. 2014; 11, 20-33.
21. Aparicio, V. A., Nebot, E., Garcia-del Moral, R., MachadoVilchez,
M., Porres, J. M., Sanchez, C., and Aranda, P: Highprotein diets and
renal status in rats. Nutricion hospitalaria. 2013; 28(1), 232-236.
22. Schwingshackl, L. and Hoffmann, G: Comparison of high vs.
normal/low protein diets on renal function in subjects without
chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PloS one. 2014; 9(5), 956- 976.
23. Kateryna Goncharova, K., Rafał Filip, R., Paulina Świeboda, P.,
Olena Prykhodko, O., Olexandr Fedkiv, O., Katarzyna Szwiec,
K. and Grzegorz, S: Model Development of Hydroxyproline
Induced Hyperoxaluria In Young Growing Pigs. European Journal
of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.2017; 15(1), 6-11.
24. Ardalan, M., Samadifar, Z. and Vahedi, A: Creatine
monohydrate supplement induced interstitial nephritis. Journal
of nephropathology. 2012; 1(2), 117-120.
25. Nauffal, M and Gabardi, S: Nephrotoxicity of natural products.
Blood purification. 2016; 41(1), 123-129.
36. Gao, S., Yang, R., Peng, Z., Lu, H., Li, N., Ding, J. and Dong,
X: Metabolomics analysis for hydroxy-L-proline-induced calcium
oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats based on ultra-high performance
liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass
spectrometry. Scientific reports. 2016; 6, 301- 42.
27. Peng, Li. and Guoyan, Wu: Roles of dietary glycine, proline, and
hydroxyproline in collagen synthesis and animal growth. Amino
acids. 2017; 7 , 1-10.
28. Sontrop, J. M., Dixon, S. N., Garg, A. X., Buendia-Jimenez, I.,
Dohein, O., Huang, S. H. S. and Clark, W. F: Association between
water intake, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease:
a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data. American journal of
nephrology. 2013; 37(5), 434-442.
29. So, R., Song, S., Lee, J. E. and Yoon, H. J: The Association
between Renal Hyperfiltration and the Sources of Habitual
Protein Intake and Dietary Acid Load in a General Population
with Preserved Renal Function: The KoGES Study. PloS one.
2016; 11(11), 166- 195.
30. Amini, P., Maghsoudi, Z., Feizi, A., Ghiasvand, R. and Askari, G:
Effects of high protein and balanced diets on lipid profiles and
inflammation biomarkers in obese and overweight women at
aerobic clubs: A randomized clinical trial. International journal
of preventive medicine.2016; 7,110.
How to Cite
ELGHARABWAY, Rehab M; AHMED, Amira; ALAWAD, Afnan. Effect of Protein Supplements on Renal Function and Lipid Profile. International Archives of Medicine, [S.l.], v. 11, nov. 2018. ISSN 1755-7682. Available at: <http://imedicalsociety.org/ojs/index.php/iam/article/view/2861>. Date accessed: 21 jan. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.3823/2588.